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Modern European History Midterm
Terms in this set (60)
document of rights about how the king should govern the country
What are the holy books of the 3 faiths?
Christianity: holy bible
Jews are the Chosen People. Chosen to do what?
Chosen to spread the word and follow gods "rules"
What is the Covenant?
jewish people will do something for god, and god will do something for him......both sides (jewish people and god) get something out of this. but if they do not honor their side of the contract, consequences come.
follow god==blessings and disobey god==consequences
the beginning of disobeying...this was Adam and eve against god
This is the announcement of the soon to be birth of Jesus Christ
Angel telling Mary that she will have the son of God
When the baby (Jesus) is formed in her (Mary), the baby was pure because it was God's child.
She got pregnant in the ultimate of clean ways
when he died on the cross (jesus)
came back alive
heaven in afterlife
What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith.
Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day.
Zakat: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit the poor and the needy.
Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan.
Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca.
What factors led to the formation of the First Triumvirate?
-Like democracy (check and balance)
-Before was emperors and that didn't turn out well
- political alliance (Gaius Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gnaeus Pompey)
How did Julius Caesar become the dictator of Rome?
He started off as a part time (out of three) ruler in the first triumvirate and through his military command and wealth, he became more and more powerful (military power was key for him)
How did Octavian come to power and what did he accomplish as Caesar?
COME TO POWER: through the military (crossing the rubricon and forcing his power using his loyal military)
What characteristics define the Pax Romana? Give at least three specific examples.
WHAT>Period of peace and prosperity
Treating ruling classes with respect
Ending arbitrary executions
Peace within empire
Domestic policies generally helpful to empire were supported
How did the policies of Diocletian impact the empire?
Made great schism
Emperor of the entire Roman Empire (he split the empire in half to make it easier to govern)
His political split increased the cultural split
West→ Latin, Roman Catholic Church
East→ Greek, Eastern/Greek Orthodox Church
Explore two factors that contributed to the decline of Rome.
-Plague wiped out 1/10 of population (pg 174 in "Roman Empire Fall" document in mail)
-Economic struggles because of a Labor shortage
-Military recruiting was difficult because there was NO ONE there
-Taxes were becoming too strenuous on the citizens, so their money was being taken away (they could not spend more money for the government....no one was making money)
-Because people died from the plague and money was not being made so they couldn't pay for the military and food and basic needs for Rome
-Roman currency lost its value and inflation (see d) was becoming an issue.
-Invasions, plague and Civil wars
-Tax base and labor shortage caused jobs to become hereditary
-Decline in trade and small industry (bad for economy...see point 4)
-Needed more men to fight in the army (military)
-Lacking mean caused the state to hire Germans to fight but they did not understand the traditions as well as having little to no loyalty to either the empire of the emperors
-Lack of army made Rome more vulnerable to attacks and invasions (the GERMANS::::Vandals, Visigoths and Huns invaded)
-Decline in trade and small industry and the economy.
-Without trade and small industry- they lacked food, farming, and resources.
-Crops were being destroyed because of invasions (lack of food).
-Rome could not create a workable political system.
-Christianity had a large effect on Rome
-Military values were becoming mixed because the religion did not love everything that the military did (rebellion from within the military)
In the Byzantine Empire, how were the Church and the emperors interconnected? Why did their relationship eventually decline?
The church also held political power and more authority than the emperors (through excommunication and interdict)
legislative (there are 300...patricians)
co-executive (work together to lead....there are TWO...one patrician and one plebeian)
they came from the assembly (From the common people) their decisions reflect the poor....the VETO (they stop things and put things on hold)
Like the house of representatives....lower class representing people
One part of the triumvirate
Became dictator of Rome in 45 B.C
Latter known as Octavian augustus and claimed to restore republic and power to senate but didn't exactly believe in this promise (wanted personal power)
The Roman Peace, 200 years of stability
Germanic tribes' impact on Roman Empire
Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals
Helped with the fall of the roman empire
2nd rome also known as constantinople
12 tables of rome
Hagia sophia (main church)
Justinian's Code of Law
12 tables of rome (byzantine empire) basis of western law
Almost restored roman empire in 40 years (his dream)
Had religious and political power----VERY powerful
What social and political conditions led to a rise in feudalism in the early Middle Ages?
Feudalism - political/social system in the Middle Ages where land was exchanged for protection
Social and political conditions:
-Vacuum after the fall of the Roman Empire
-No one center power
-In order to protect what they had, they set up feudalism
Describe what society was like in medieval Europe. What were the different social classes, and how did they interact with one another?
Got military aid and loyalty
Gave food, shelter, and protection
Got homage, military services, and peasants
Descendendants of Patricians
Rich from land
Some were wealthier than the King/Queen
Gave food, shelter, and protection
Got farmed land, money, food shelter, and protection
Gave farming on land and rent
Got food, shelter, and protection
What was the significance of the Battle of Hastings, and what was its effect on England?
The royal family was hereditary
It was the Anglo-Saxons for a very long time
The throne changed from Anglo-Saxons to the Normans
Sparked wars between Normandy and the Normans in England
Dukes of Normandy wanted to take England
Overthrow of the king and the beginning of a new one
Conquest of England
It brought a new war strategy
Innovation of tools
What was the lasting importance of the Magna Carta?
Magna Carta (also known as great charter) - document of rights that limited the King's power
the Great Charter
Between King John and the Barons (nobles)
Limiting the power of the King
Gave it more to the nobles
It gave the people/nobles more power (a new system)
Explore TWO events or causes that led to the Crusades.
1. Byzantine emperor asked for help from Pope Urban II against the Seljuk Turks, Muslims. (to get holy land)
2. Pope wanted to provide leadership. Europe's warriors wanted to free Jerusalem and the Holy Land (Jesus was born there) from the infidels, Muslims.
How were guilds important?
Guilds - business associations
Guilds for almost every craft
Set standards for quality, methods, $, and people who could enter the specific trade and the process they must follow
How and why did the Black Death spread so quickly?
The Black Death was spread by rats infested with fleas carrying a deadly bacterium
Italian merchants brought the plague with them from Kaffa, on the Back Sea, to the island of Sicily in October 1347
Not much personal hygiene
How did the Great Schism affect Christians in Europe and their beliefs about Church leadership?
When each line of popes denounced the other as the Antichrist (Devil), people's faith were undermined
How were the French able to win the Hundred Years' War?
-Before, the French lost horribly to the English
=But, Joan of Arc, daughter of prosperous peasants, was very religious
-She had visions and believed that saints had commanded her to free France
-Inspired by her faith, the French armies found confidence and seized Orléans
-Invented cannon (new technologies) and english men were being brought in...home advantage (french had more people)
William of Normandy
Defeated king Harold in the battle of hastings==in England (normans from bottom of hill, anglo saxons from top of hill)
Archers, foot soldiers, knights on horse back (against anglo-saxons...for normans)
They had advantage bc Harold's men were exhausted from traveling (also church was for William) and Harold had to leave behind many men
Belief of opinion contrary to a certain religion
There were two popes
Split between Catholicism itself
When each line of popes denounced the other as the Antichrist, people's faith were undermined
Joan of Arc
-Joan of Arc, daughter of prosperous peasants, was very religious (17 years old)
-She had visions and believed that saints had commanded her to free France.
-Inspired by her faith, the French armies found confidence and seized Orléans.
-She was a martyr - she died before she saw the end of the war
HELPED FRENCH IN 100's YEARS WAR
Why is it called the Renaissance, and what were its key features?
Renaissance= rebirth or Greco-Roman culture (classical culture)
Renaissance man (perfect...well rounded people)
Individualism, humanism, idealism, sacred vrs secular
Describe what is meant by the phrase "Renaissance man." How did Leonardo da Vinci exemplify it?
A WELL ROUNDED AND EDUCATED AND TALENTED PERSON.....idealism
LDV: he was very good at many different things like...
Engineering, painting, architect, mathematician, botanist, anatomist, artist, musician, inventor, scientist, etc... (always experimenting with new ideas and techniques) ......he created mona lisa (first casual portrait)
Identify two renowned Renaissance artists and what famous works or styles of work are attributed to them? Why was their work so esteemed in their time?
At age 25..one of the best painters in Italy
Known for madonnas
paintings of virgin Mary
(beauty surpassing human standards)
Known for frescoes in Vatican palace (School of Athens)
World of balance, harmony, and order
principles of classical greek and roman art
Sculptor, architect, painter
Art Depicted ideal type of human with perfect proportions (reflection of divine beauty) making people seem godlike
What led reformers to voice criticisms of the Catholic church?
Corruption in the church (these people..dedicated to their faith saw corruption and wanted the truth and a purified church) .......popes became too involved with politics (papal states)
Also reformation created individualism which leaded to this (independent ideas)
How did Gutenberg's printing press aid in Martin Luther's reform movement?
Vernacular language, and the printing press allowed others to quickly be informed of martin Luther's movement
Why might have the German rulers have backed Martin Luther? Were there motives purely religious?
There motives were political, economic, and religious based (taking control of catholic churches in their territories)
Italian who wrote in the prince how to acquire and keep political power (believed not to follow christian principles when ruing...that morality had little to do with politics)
Ends justifies the means
Martin Luther & his Ninety-Five Theses
Protestant reformer "against" catholic church bc of corruption (political, indulgences, papal states)
Door of castle church in Wittenberg, Germany
Discuss common practice of time (Attacking church and abuses in sale of indulgences)
Edict of Worms
Created by church saying martin luther was an outlaw within roman empire (works burned, and he would be captured and delivered to empire)
But luther was protected by Frederick, elector of saxony, Germany
John Calvin and predestination
Educated in France (protestantism) so he fleet catholic France to go to Switzerland
Published his masterpiece: "the institutes of the christian religion" (summary of protestant thought)
Leader of protestantism
God chose people to be saved (the elect) and others to be damned (the reprobate)
Believed no one could be 100% sure of salvation (against christianity)
Pressed others to do gods work on earth by spreading faith
What were the 3 Gs that motivated Europeans, especially the Spanish and the Portuguese, to explore?
God , gold, and glory
What was the route that Diaz (1488) and da Gama (1498) took to get to India?
Getting to india (Race for riches):
VASCO DA GAMA:
Went around cape and cut across indian ocean to cost of india
He was from Portugal
Pope Alexander VI negotiated the Line of Demarcation in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) between Spain and Portugal. What did Spain get and what did Portugal get? What group of people were directly affected by this decision but did not have a say?
LINE OF DEMARCATION:
Between Spanish and Portuguese (Defined by pope alexander VI)
Saying who could take/explore what (So they weren't going to war or constantly concerned ab this)
TREATY OF TORDESILLAS:
Called for line of demarcation
WHAT DID SPAIN GET?
West of line==Spain (access to route to americas)
WHAT DID PORTUGAL GET?
East of line=Portugal (access to route to Africa)
How was Hernan Cortes able to conquer the Aztec empire? Provide two reasons.
Spanish conqueror of mexico (to ensure natives were introduced by catholic faith)
He focused on religion (using catholic approach.....you have to join us in order for you to be saved)
Convincing you by promising salvation (if u join)
Describe the encomienda system
This was the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers.
How did the Columbian Exchange impact both Native Americans and Europeans? Give one example impacting each.
Potatoes, for example, became a basic dietary staple in some areas of Europe. By enabling more people to survive on smaller pots of land, a rapid increase in population was made possible.
Native americans==starving (needed food and things)
europeans--=suffering from disease...new food crops, population growth (diverse culture)
(animals and plants)
What is mercantilism?
a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17th century..balance of trade
What were the 3 Atlantic points and what were the goods in each leg of the Triangular trade?
Triangular trade connected Europe, Africa, and the American continents. European merchant ships carried European manufactured goods, such as guns and cloth, to Africa where they were traded for enslaved people. European merchants then bought tobacco, molasses, sugar, and raw cotton in the Americas and shopped them back to Europe.
What was the Middle Passage?
The middle portion of the triangular trade. The journey of enslaved people from Africa to the Americas.
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