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Progressivism and World War 1
Terms in this set (49)
reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way grovernment works
, early 1900s; wanted to improve conditions in America: socially, politically, economically; civil rights for African Americans/women, safety in the workplace, better labeling of food and drink, child labor, workmen's compensation, conservation of natural resources
, Coalitions of Democrats and Republicans who believed in that government has been captured by corrupt elites who were using government resources to enrich themselves rather than serve citizens.
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
Susan B Anthony; Drunkeness leads to abuse (physically and mentally) in the home. Women are in poverty because they have to prostitute to feed themselves. Women from all work forces need to gain a voice.
moderation in or abstinence from alcohol
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
In 1911 the tragic fire killed 146 people, mostly women because the owner kept the stairway doors locked to prevent theft, following stricter building acts and factory codes, and worker insurance
, A 1911 fire in this company, where over 140 women workers died, led to new laws regulating work hours, working conditions, and fire codes
Muller vs. Oregon
- court limited working hours for women working in laundry shop
- dangerous to reproductive health
- result --> limit jobs that women can have
, a landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it relates to both sex discrimination and labor laws. The case upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health.
, 1908 - Louis D Branders got the Supreme Court to accept laws protecting women against the harmful effects of factory labor
, 1908- Louis Brandeis. Supreme Court accepted constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies. Progressives ironically hailed this.
The first progressive President.
-Breaks the mold of post-civil war presidency: is dynamic and active
-Wants to ensure the game (economy) is not rigged in favor of rich
1. "Trust Buster" - Breaks up Western railroad monopoly, Standard Oil, Duke brothers.
2. Support for labor - Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
-Roosevelt really wants coal --> influences him to step in, not because he favored employees --> but eventually sets the example.
3. Industrial regulation - Reigning in Big Business:
-Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
-Meat Inspection Act (1906)
4. Conservation - John Muir (Preservation) V. Gifford Pinchot (Utilitarian)
, He was not supposed to become President. But as the Vice President under McKinley he became President when McKinley was elected.
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
, President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
, Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
, Name of TD's programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov't regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation
The practice of journalists to expose the inappropriate actions of public officials, government organizations, or corporations.
, Journalism exposing economic, social, and political evils, so named by Theodore Roosevelt for its "raking the muck" of American society.
Anthracite Coal Strike
1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor (first time)
, 1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis. Roosevelt had no authority in the matter, but summoned representatives of both sides to a White House meeting. The president proposed arbitration; the miners accepted the proposal, but the owners declined. Then Roosevelt angrily threatened to send in federal soldiers to take over the mines. After issuing this threat, he turned to J.P. Morgan and secured his services to act as a go-between with the mine operators.
, 1st evidence of TR's reform -over 150,000 miners walked off their jobs demanding higher pay, shorter days and offiicial recognition of their union - result= mine owners agreed to arbitration - was also perceived as having sided with the strikers rather then movement= huge switch from government positions
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
, The Elkins Act of 1903 was an act passed by Congress against the Railroad industries. It was specifically targeted at the use of rebates. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them. It is part of the Progressive Reform movement.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force. U.S. was granted the right to intervene militarily in neighboring countries in cases of "chronic wrong-doing" such as not paying debts or failure to maintain order. This made the U.S. an "international police power."
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
, (1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson
, promoted "dollar diplomacy" to expand foreign investments
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
, Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
, Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
, Term used to describe the efforts of the U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power. It protected American investments in Latin America and Asia and encouraged more stable governments.
: was a really smart man, hated stupid people, was very different from roosevelt and taft. a once-mild conservative but now militant progressive, was the second democrat in the white house, tried to keep US out of war, removed dollar diplomacy. Progressive plan was to make things better for the people with eight hour days
, 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
, After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
, Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
, Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Federal Reserve Act
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
, (WW) , response to Panic , Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
, Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Federal Trade Commission
an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition
, Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies
, power to order companies to cease unfair trading practices whose decisions were subject to court review
, New presidentially appointed regulatory commission designed to prevent monopoly and guard against unethical trade practices
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
, she organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's.
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
, The system of racial segregation in the South that was created in the late nineteenth century following the end of slavery. Jim Crow laws written in the 1880s and 1890s mandated segregation in public facilities.
, laws passed in southern states which required African Americans and whites to be separated in almost every public place
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
, Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
, believed that blacks should strive for economic equality before racial equality b/c that was the only way they would be more accepted and see a reduction in segregation; advocated training poor blacks in skilled trades to accomplish this; associated with Tuskegee Institute
W.E.B Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
, Du Bois was the African American leader most opposed to the gradual approach of achieving equal rights presented by Booker T. Washington. Dubois advocated immediate equal treatment ad equal educational opportunities for blacks. He helped initiate the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
, African American who believed Blacks should fight segregation; pushed for higher education opportunities for Blacks to achieve economic independence; helped to found the NAACP
The European Crisis
America did not want to get involved with other countries and their affairs. America wanted to stay neutral.
, President Wilson sought to distance the US from WWI by issuing a proclamation of neutrality, Wilson's policy of neutrality was consistent with America's traditional policy of avoiding European entanglements, Wilson insisted that all belligerents respect American neutral rights on the high seas.
, This policy was pursued early in World War I. Under it, the American economy flourished and grew because of its trade with belligerents. The United States refused to take sides in the Great War.
Germany's policy of shooting first and then asking questions later of passing merchant ships with submarines.
, Used by Germany in WWI to strike back at the British Navy that blockaded all northern European ports preventing supplies from getting to Germany
, Unrestricted-Germany will attack any ship approaching allied powers; angers US (Lusitania)
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
, Telegram sent by Germans to encourage a Mexican attack against the United States. Intercepted by the US in 1917.
, German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
, This telegram, written by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, is a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the United States. The obvious threats to the United States contained in the telegram inflamed American public opinion against Germany and helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
General John Pershing
led the American Expeditionary Force; urged that the AEF operate as an independent fighting force, under American command; was made General of the Armies of the United States, which is the highest rank given to an officer
, Wilson ordered him and an expeditionary force of about 15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Francisco "Pancho" Villa dead or alive
National War Labor Policies Board
-enact an 8 hour work day, living minimum wage and bargaining rights/unions
-enacted many things progressives wanted for a long time
-tried to get more women involved
, 1918. Created to arbitrate labor disputes between owners and workers. Disbanded following WWI.
, An amendment ratified in 1919 that completely banned the manufacture, sale, distribution, or import of any and all alcoholic beverages (started Prohibition, and was later repealed)
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
, Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amendment.
, An act that prohibited and called for harsh punishment on whoever falsely defamed government officials or impeded on the policies of the government
(WW) , granted women the right to vote in 1920 (Susan B Anthony started campaign)
, The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
, Woodrow Wilson's peace plan to end WWI. It calls for free trade; an end to secret pacts between nations; freedom of the seas; arms reduction; and the creation of a world organization - called the League of Nations
period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the US gvnt
, Nationwide panic and fear that communists might seize power in the US
Schenck vs US
argued that freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a danger to the nation.
, a 1919 decision upholidng the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during WW1. justice holmes declared that gov't can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
, Movement between 1915 - 1940 of millions of African Americans to the north in search of work and fair treatment.
Warren G. Harding
Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over
, president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI.
Return to Normalcy
was U.S. Presidential candidate Warren Harding's campaign promise in the election of 1920.
, After World War I 1919-20s, when Harding was President, the US and Britain returned to isolatoinism. The US economy "boomed" but Europe continued to struggle. It was the calm before the bigger storm hit: World War II
, Coined by Warren G. Harding symbolizing the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson. This meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Open Door Policy
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
, A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Marked the first view shift from domestic affairs to international affairs.
election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
, William McKinley (rep) vs. Willism Jennings Bryan (dem, supported by populists who ran their VP), main topic was currency (Bryan pro free silver, Mckinley against free silver), Mckinley wins
election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
, When the Republican's votes were split between Taft and Roosevelt, the Democrats stayed together and elected Wilson as President. The Republicans had no chance because they had two candidates running.
election of 1920
Warren G. Harding (R) vs James Cox (D) 2) issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations 3) Harding preached "Normalcy"
, candidates, issues: Senator Warren G. Harding was the Republican dark horse with running mate Calvin Coolidge. They advocated a "return to normalcy" from the war environment. James Cox, and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the Democratic nominees. They ran on a platform endorsing the League with reservations.
, Election; dominated by the aftermath of WWI and the hostile reaction to Wilson; Democrats tried to make it into a referendum of League of Nations, but were foiled by Harding's ambiguous rhetoric. Warren G. Harding (Repub.) won against Cox (Dem.).
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