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23 terms

chapter 34 (infection)

STUDY
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infection
the entry and multiplication of an organism(infectious agent) in a host; are usually infectious or communicapable
pathogen
infectious agent; if is present in a host, it does not mean that infection will occur
colonization
if a microoganism is present or invades a host, grows and/or multiplies but does not cause infection
infectious
may not pose a risk for transmission (passing from one person to another) ex: viral meningitis & pneumonia
communicable disease
transmitted directly from one person to another
symptomatic
if the pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs & symptoms
asymptomatic
if clinical signs and symptoms are not present
chain of infection
infection occurs in a cycle and depends on the presence of ALL of the following: 1)An infectious agent or pathogen 2)a reservoir or source for pathogen growth 3)a portal of exit from the reservoir 4)a mode of transmission 5)a portal of entry to a host 6)a susceptible host...... infection can develop if this chain is not interrupted
resident organisms
permanent residents of the skin, where they survive and multiply without causing illness, major part of the bodys protection
resident flora
covers the entire exterior of the body; protects agianst pathogens, imortant to retain and maintain
transient microorganisms
attach to the skin when a person has contact with another person during normal activites; attach loosely to skin in dirt and grease or underneath fingernails
the potential for microorganisms to cause disease depends on:
1)sufficient number of organisms (dose) 2)Virulence 3)ability to enter and survive in the 4)susceptibility of the host (host resistance)
virulence
ability to survive in the host or outside the body
immunocompromised
has an impaired immune system
reservoir
a place where a pathogen can survive but may or maynot multiply
carriers
persons who show no symptoms of illness but who have pathogens on or in their bodies that can be transferred to others
food
microorgansims require nourishment
oxygen
required by aerobic bacteria for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease; cause more infections in humans than anaerobic
anaerobic
strive where little or no oxygen is available; infections deep in pleural cavity, in ajoint, or in deep sinus
water/moist
are required by most organisms for survival; usually the most frequent place for microorganisms
temperature
is important because it influences where microorgansims live; usually is around 20 to 43 C (68F to 109F) where they grow best
pH
determines the viability of microorganisms; usually ranges from 5 to 7
light
usually the thrive in dark environments; such as under dressings and within body cavities