Basic Speech Communication Ch.2 and Ch.6-10
Terms in this set (127)
Culture is the totality of learned, shared symbols, language, values and norms that distinguish one group from another. Culture is property of the people.
Societies are groups of people who share common symbols, language, values and norms.
In-groups are groups that someone identifies with.
- Out-groups are groups that someone does not identify with.
- Ethnicity is our perception of our ancestry or heritage.
Nationality is one's status as a citizen of a particular country.
Enculturation is the process of acquiring a culture.
Co-cultures are groups of people who share values, customs and norms related to mutual interests or characteristic besides their national citizenship. A co-culture is composed of smaller groups of people with whom you identify.
Individualistic culture is a culture in which people believe that their primary responsibility is to themselves.
Collectivist culture is a culture in which people believe that their primary responsibility is to their families, their communities, and their employers.
Low-context culture is a culture in which people are expected to be direct and to say what they mean.
High-culture is a culture in which people are taught to speak in an indirect, inexplicit way.
Low-power distance culture
Low-power distance culture is a culture that believes that no one person or group should have excessive power.
High-power distance culture
High-power distance culture is a culture in which certain groups, such as the royal family or the members of a ruling party, have much greater power than the average citizen.
Masculine Culture is a culture in which people cherish traditionally masculine values and prefer sex-specific roles for women and men.
Feminine Culture is a culture in which people cherish traditionally feminine qualities and prefer little differentiation in the roles of women and men.
Monochronic Culture is a culture that views time as a finite tangible commodity.
Polychronic Culture is a culture that views time as holistic, fluid, and infinite.
Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which people try to avoid situations that unstructured, unclear or unpredictable.
Mindful is being aware - as being aware of how other cultures' behaviors and ways of thinking are likely to differ from one's own.
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to judge other cultures' practices as inferior to one's own.
- Communication codes are verbal and nonverbal behaviors whose meanings are often understood only by people from the same culture.
Adapt means to change one's own behavior to accommodate what others are doing.
Listening is the active process of making meaning out of another person's spoken message.
Hearing is the sensory process of receiving and perceiving sound.
Attending is the process of paying attention to someone's words well enough to understand what that person is trying to communicate.
HURIER Model is a model describing the stages of effective listening as a Hearing, Understanding, Remembering, Interpreting, Evaluating and Responding.
Mnemonics are devices that can aid short-and long-term memory
Critical listening is listening to evaluate or analyze.
Empathic listening is listening to experience what the speaker thinks or feels.
- Noise is anything that distracts people from listening to what they wish to listen to
Pseudolistening is pretending to listen.
Selective attention is listening only to what one wants to hear and ignoring the rest.
Information overload is the state of being overwhelmed by the enormous amount of information encountered daily.
Glazing over is daydreaming or allowing the mind to wander while another person is speaking.
Rebuttal tendency is the propensity to debate a speaker's point and formulate a reply while that person is still speaking.
Closed-mindedness is the tendency not to listen to anything which one disagrees.
Competitive Interrupting is the practice of using interruptions to take control of the conversation.
Confirmation Bias is the tendency to pay attention only to information that supports one's values and beliefs, while discounting or ignoring information that does not.
Vividness effect is the tendency of dramatic, shocking events to distort one's perceptions of reality.
Skepticism is an attitude that involves raising questions or having doubts.
Need to belong theory
A psychological theory proposing a fundamental human inclination.
Using the internet to inflict emotional or psychological harm
Attraction theory: A theory that explains why individuals are drawn to each other
Interpersonal Attraction: The force that draws people together
Physical Attraction: The force that draws people together.
Social attraction: Attraction to someone's personality
Task Attraction: Attraction to someone's abilities or dependability
Proximity: Closeness, as in how closely together people live or work.
Complementary: The beneficial provision by another person of quality that one lacks.
Uncertainty reduction theory
Uncertainty reduction theory: Theory suggesting that people find uncertainty to be unpleasant, so they are motivated to reduce their uncertainty by getting to know others.
Social exchange theory
Social exchange theory: Theory suggesting that people seek to maintain relationships in which their benefits outweigh their costs
A realistic expectation of what one wants and thinks one deserves from a relationship
Comparison level for alternatives
Comparison level for alternatives: An assessment of how much better or worse one's current relationship is than one's other options.
Over benefited: A state in which one's relationship benefits outweigh one's cost
Under benefited: A state in which one's relational costs outweigh one's benefits
Equity theory: Theory that a good relationship is one in which a person's ratio of costs and benefits is equal to his or her partner's
Relational maintenance behaviors theory
Relational maintenance behaviors theory: Theory specifying the primary behaviors people use to maintain their relationships.
Self-disclosure: Act of intentionally giving others information about oneself that one believes to be true but thinks others don't already have
Social penetration theory
Social penetration theory: Theory indicating that the depth and breadth of self-disclosure help us learn about a person we're getting to know.
Breadth: The range of topics on discusses with various people.
Depth: The intimacy of one's self-disclosures.
Norm of reciprocity
Norm of reciprocity: The social expectation that favors should be reciprocated
Peer: A person similar to oneself in status or power
Intimacy: Significant emotional closeness experienced in a relationship, whether romantic or not.
Commitment: The desire to stay in a relationship no matter what happens.
Interdependence: The state in which what happens to one person affects everyone else in the relationship.
Investment: The commitment of one's energies and resources to a relationship.
Dialectical tensions: Conflicts between two important but opposing relational needs or desires.
Monogamy: The state of being in only one romantic relationship at a time and avoiding romantic or sexual involvement with others outside that relationship.
Infidelity: Romantic or sexual interaction with someone outside one's romantic relationship.
Polygamy: The state of having two or more romantic partners at once.
nitiating stage: The stage of a relationship development at which people meet and interact for the first time.
Experimenting stage: The stage of relationship development at which people converse to learn more about each other.
Intensifying stage: The stage of relationship development at which people move from being acquaintances to being close friends.
Integrating stage: The stage of relationship development at which a deep commitment has formed, and the partners share a strong sense that the relationship has its own identity.
Bonding stage: The stage of relationship development at which partners make a public announcement of their commitment to each other.
Conflict: An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals.
Communication privacy management (CPM) theory
Communication privacy management (CPM) theory: A theory explaining how people in relationships negotiate the tension between disclosing information and keeping it private.
Differentiating stage: The stage of relationship dissolution at which partners begin to view their differences as undesirable or annoying.
Circumscribing stage: The stage of relationship dissolution at which partners begin to decrease the quality or quantity of their communication with each other.
Stagnating stage: The stage of relationship dissolution at which the relationship stops growing and the partners feel as if they are "going through the motions."
The stage of relationship dissolution at which partners create physical and emotional distance from each other.
Terminating stage: The stage of relationship dissolution at which the relationship is officially deemed to be over.
Family of origin
Family of origin: The family in which one grows up, usually consisting of parents and siblings.
Family of procreation
Family of procreation: The family one starts as an adult, usually consisting of a spouse or romantic partner and children
Family rituals: Repetitive activities that have special meaning for a family
Behaviors that convey how much another person is valued.
Behaviors that imply a lack of respect or value for others.
Criticism: Complaints about another person or the person's behaviors
Contempt: Hostile behavior in which people insult each other and attack the other's self-worth.
Defensiveness: Seeing oneself as a victim and denying responsibility for one's behaviors.
Stonewalling: Withdrawing from a conversation.
Small group: A collection of people working interdependently to accomplish a task; small groups typically include 3 to 20 members.
Interdependence: With respect to groups, a state in which each member of a group affects, and is affected by, every other member.
Cohesion: The force by which the members of a group work together in the service of a common goal.
Role: A pattern of behavior that defines a person's function within a group or larger organization.
Resources: Entities that enable a group to be productive
Synergy: A collaboration that produces more than the sum of its parts
Social Loafing: The tendency of some members of a group to contribute less to the group than the average member does, particularly as they grow in size
Brainstorming: An idea-generating process in which group members offer whatever ideas they wish before any are debated.
Nominal group technique (NGT)
Nominal group technique (NGT): An idea-generating process in which group members generate their initial ideas silently and independently and then combine them and consider them as a group
Ideawriting: An idea-generating process in which each member adds three or four ideas to a pile and then offers comments on others' ideas. Afterward members respond to comments made about their ideas and generate a master list of ideas worthy of consideration.
Unanimous consensus: Uncontested support for a decision-sometimes the only option in a group's decision-making process.
Stalemate: An outcome where members' opinions are so sharply divided that the consensus is impossible to achieve
False consensus: An outcome where some members of a group say they support the unanimous decision even though they did not.
Majority Rule: A decision-making process that follows the will of the majority
Minority Rule: A decision-making process in which a small number of members make a decision on behalf of the group
Expert opinion: Recommendations of individuals who have an expertise in a particular area that are sometimes the basis of a group's decision-making process.
Authority rule: A decision making process in which the leader of the group makes the decisions.
Traits: Defining characteristics of a person that are often relatively enduring and not easily changeable.
Physical traits: The body's physical attributes.
Psychosocial traits: Characteristics of one's personality and ways of relating to others.
Extroversion: A personality trait shared by people who are friendly, assertive, and outgoing with others.
Introversion: A personality trait shared by people who are shy, reserved, and aloof.
Communication apprehension: Anxiety or fear about communicating with others.
Democratic style: A leadership style in which every member of a group has the right to participate in decision-making.
Autocratic style: A leadership style in which leaders see themselves as having both the authority and the responsibility to take action on a group's behalf.
Laissez-faire style: A leadership style in which leaders offer minimal supervision.
Power: The ability to influence or control people or events.
Reward power: A form of power based on the leader's ability to reward another for doing what the leader says
Coercive power: A form of power that comes from the ability to punish.
Referent power: A form of power that derives from attraction to the leader.
Legitimate power: A form of power in which leaders' status or position gives them the right to make requests with which others must comply.
Expert power: A form of power that stems from having expertise in a particular area.
Informational power: A form of power that stems from the ability to control access to information.
Groupthink: A situation in which group members seek unanimous agreement despite their individual doubts.