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What color will a star with a surface temperature of 5000-6000 K?


Mass of star can be determined by...

binary star systems

Parallax star angle

the closer the star the larger the parallax angle

How long is a light year?

9.5 trillion miles

What does not affect the apparent brightness of a star from earth?

how old the star is

Absolute magnitude

a measure of the amount of light that a star actually emits

Apparent magnitude

the brightness of a star when viewed from Earth

Hertzprung-Russel diagram shows...

the relationship between temperature and absolute magnitude

90% of stars on the Hertzprung-Russel diagram are...

main sequence stars

Before a star is born it is a...

cool, dark nebula

A star is born when......

a protostar reaches a temperature high enough for nuclear fusion to begin

What life cycle stage will the sun enter next?

red giant stage

What will be the final stage of our sun?

black dwarf stage

All stars eventually do what?

collapse into a white dwarf

What remains after a low-medium mass star dies?

white dwarf

Milky way nucleus dimensions

100,000 wide
10,000 light years thick

Where is our sun positioned in the milky way?

within one of the spirals about 30,000 light years away form the nucleus

60%of all known galaxies are classified as...

spiral galaxies

How do we know the universe is expanding?

red shift of distant galaxies

The universe began as what? (according to the big bang theory)

dense, hot, supermassive ball

What is evidence of the bug bang theory?

cosmic background radiation

Three properties of a star

temperature, color, mass

What can a star's color tell about the star?

It's approximate temperature

Binary Stars

stars pulled together by gravity used to determine mass


the apparent change in position of a star when seen from opposite sides of the Earth's orbit

Nearby stars have what?

Larger angles than distant stars

Parallax angles of distant stars are...

Too small to measure

How many star's parallax angles have been found?

only a few thousand of the closest stars

Blue stars


Red stars


Yellow stars

have medium temperature


a group of stars that forms a shape or pattern named to honor mythological characters

Emission Nebulae

hydrogen gas is ionized by the energy of nearby stars and glows by florescence

Absorption Nebulae

made of dense clouds of interstellar dust

All stars eventually become...

a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole

Three types of galaxies

spiral, elliptical, irregular

Low mass stars stages

Nebula, protostar, main sequence star, white dwarf, black dwarf

Medium mass stars stages

Nebula, protostar, main sequence star, red giant, planetary nebula, white dwarf, black dwarf

Massive stars stages

Nebula, protostar, main sequence star, red supergiant, supernova explosion, black hole, neutron star

How does the red shift work?

light waves are "stretched", which shows that earth and the source are moving away from each other

Stages the sun will go through and has gone through

dust and gasses, main sequence star, red giant stage, planetary nebula, white dwarf

3 factors that define a star's apparent brightness

age, distance from earth, actual magnitude

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