95 terms

Human Biology Final

Pt. 1, up to muscular system
The reason cells stay small is most accurately stated as:
The surface area of a cell must heed exchange requirements.
The phospholipid bilayer that surrounds/maintains the integrity of a cell is called a:
Plasma membrane
The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy is known as:
Facilitated transport
An obvious dark-stained structure within the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA is called the:
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is important in the synthesis of...
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is important in synthesizing...
Specialized cells that work together to perform a common function are called:
Which of the following is considered a basic tissue type? (ALL)
1. epithelial, 2. connective, 3. muscle, 4. nervous
Which type of tissue covers body surfaces and lines body cavities?
Epithelial tissue
What type of tissue binds structures together and provides structural support?
The three major components of connective tissue are...
Cells, ground substance, and protein fibers
What protein provides flexibility and strength to connective tissues?
What can be found at the ends of long bones, ribs, and respiratory passages?
Hyaline cartilage
Which of the following is not a function of the integument?
Production of white blood cells
What is responsible for the waterproofing of skin?
Choose the correct statement regarding accessory organs of the integument...
Nails, hair, and glands are all structures of epidermal origin.
Choose the most correct statement concerning capillaries.
The only site of nutrient, gas exchange, and waste exchange is the capillaries.
What is the function of valves in the veins?
Prevent the backward flow of blood.
Choose the correct statement concerning the heart. (ALL)
1. The heart is cone-shaped, 2. The heart is about the size of a human fist, 3. the heart is normally tilted toward the left, 4. The heart is between the lungs
The two lower pumping chambers of the heart are known as the...
______ pressure occurs when the ventricles are relaxing and ____ occurs when the heart ejects blood.
Diastolic, systolic
What serve as a reservoir for blood?
The heart muscle is known as the:
The venae cavae carry low-oxygen blood to the ____ of the heart.
Right atrium
The major functions of the blood include:
1. Transporting oxygen, hormones, and nutrients, 2. Carrying waste products, 3. Regulating body temps and pH, 4. Fighting pathogens
RBC's are better known as what?
WBC's are better known as what?
Which of the following are actually cell fragments and not whole cells?
Hemoglobin is ALL of the following:
1. Found in RBC's, 2. An oxygen transporter, 3. Required for cellular respiration, 4. The pigment that makes blood red
Mature human RBC's are...
Biconcave discs without a nucleus.
The two major components of blood are:
Formed elements and plasma
_____ are organisms such as viruses and bacteria that are capable of causing disease.
_____ exist in some bacteria and prevent them from being destroyed by phagocytic WBC's and certain one-celled organisms.
Under ideal conditions, some species of bacteria can double their numbers every 12 mins. This extraordinary ability is the result of bacteria being capable of:
Binary fission
The thymus becomes smaller with age as well as:
Helps T lymphocytes learn self from nonself
Identify the positive contributions of some bacteria (ALL)
1. Bacteria can serve as decomposers in the environment, 2. Bacteria are important in the wine, cheese, and bread industry, 3. Bacteria are important in biotechnology, 4. Some bacteria are beneficial residents of the digestive tract
An additional ring of DNA found in some bacteria is called a:
Choose the following statement that most accurately describes viruses. (ALL)
1. They contain a protein coat called a capsid, 2. They may contain genomic DNA or RNA, 3. They are acellular, 4. They are obligate intracellular parasites
Viruses are capable of multiplying in a host cell because:
Viral DNA instructs the cell to produce more of the virus
Prions cause degenerative diseases of which system?
New viral pathogens can emerge when... (ALL)
1. They are transported to different parts of the world, 2. The virus mutates, 3. The virus can be transmitted by a new vector, 4. The immune system cannot recognize a change in the virus
The lymphatic system... (ALL)
1. Takes up excess tissue fluid, returns it to the bloodstream, 2. Absorbs fats in the intestines, 3. Helps the body defend against disease, 4. Includes the spleen, thymus, and tonsils
Lymphatic capillaries called _____ are located in the small intestines.
What is not included as a lymphatic organ?
Liver, kidney
Red bone marrow and the ____ are considered primary lymphatic organs.
Lymph nodes and the _____ are considered secondary lymphatic organs.
Immunity is based on the recognition of antibody-stimulating entities known as...
ALL of the following are considered a nonspecific defense. (4)
1. Barriers to entry, 2. Inflammatory reaction, 3. Natural killer cells, 4. Protective proteins
In ____ immunity, the individual produces antibodies against particular pathogens.
In ____ immunity, the individual is given specific antibodies against a pathogen.
After being exposed to a contagious disease, Jennifer has accumulated a high level of antibodies, yet shows no sign of illness. She is exhibiting:
Active immunity
Larry was immunized against most of the childhood diseases. This represents ___ immunity.
What is not considered an accessory organ of the digestive system?
Small intestines
The functions of the digestive system include ALL of the following: (4)
1. To ingest food, 2. To digest food into small nutrients so that the molecules can pass through membranes, 3. To absorb nutrient molecules, 4. To eliminate indigestible remains
An infant has __ deciduous teeth and an adult has __ permanent teeth.
20, 32
When you hold a piece of bread in your mouth, what enzyme initiates the process of starch digestion?
Salivary amylase
The rhythmic contractions of the digestive tract that allow movement of foodstuffs are called:
The ____ is a muscular tube that passes foodstuffs from the mouth to the stomach.
The primary function of the stomach is:
To store food, churn, begin digestion
Choose the correct statement concerning the stomach. (ALL, 4)
1. Pepsin is an enzyme that helps break down proteins, 2. The pH of the stomach is about 2, 3. Alcohol is absorbed by the stomach, 4. Mucus serves as a protective secretion in the stomach
The thick, soupy liquid of partially digested food that leaves the stomach is called:
Hepatitis ___ is usually acquired through tainted blood. It can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver failure and death. There is no vaccine.
Which is not considered a part of the upper respiratory tract?
Which is not considered a part of the lower respiratory tract?
The process of filtering or removing dust and other particles in the upper respiratory tract is accomplished by ALL of the following (3):
1. Mucous, 2. Nasal hairs, 3. Cilia
The respiratory gases diffuse through:
Which is not a part of the pharynx?
____ in the pharynx are actually a part of the lymphatic system.
The ____ houses the vocal cords.
The windpipe is more accurately called the...
What is the correct sequence of air movement during inspiration?
Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
Each lobe consists of a ____ that serves many alveoli.
The urinary system is important in the regulation of ALL these...(3)
1. Water content of the body, 2. Blood volume of the body, 3. pH of the blood
Excretion primarily rids the body of...
Substances that were involved in metabolism
The function of the urethra is to connect the urinary bladder to the:
Exterior of the body
The tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the:
What is the primary nitrogenous end product of humans?
The process of elimination of soluble metabolic wastes is called:
What is not a function of the urinary system?
Production of leukocytes
The higher the concentrations of salts in the blood, the ____ the blood volume and the ____ the blood pressure.
Greater, higher
In the kidneys, _____ serve to filter blood and produce urine.
Which is not one of the three steps involved in urine formation?
Countercurrent mechanism
Scott does not understand why alcohol consumption increases urine production. How can this phenomenon be simply explained?
Alcohol inhibits ADH causing diuresis.
To stimulate RBC production, the kidneys will secrete the hormone...
Hemodialysis may be used to accomplish ALL of the following: (3)
1. Remove nitrogenous wastes from the blood, 2. Remove toxins from the blood, 3. Add bicarbonate ions to the blood
The majority of bones in the human body are formed through...
Endochondral Ossification
The shaft of a long bone is called the...
Identify the major functions of the skeletal system. (ALL, 4)
1. Gives the body support and shape, 2. Protects vital organs, 3. Produces blood cells, 4. Stores essential minerals
The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones that include ALL of the following (3):
1. The skull, 2. The vertebral column, 3. The hyoid bone and ribcage
Compact bone is composed of tubular units called...
The bone tissue that contains many large spaces filled with red marrow is called...
Spongy bone
Bone cells are called...
Cartilage cells are called...
What is the continued erosion and replacement of bone tissue?
Soon after a fracture, blood escapes from ruptured blood vessels and forms a...