184 terms

Honors BIO Final Vocabulary

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activation energy
energy input necessary to initiate a chemical reaction
activation site
the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction
active transport
energy-requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration
ADP
adenosine diphosphate; a low-energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
ATP
adenosine triphosphate; high-energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use
aerobic
process that requires oxygen to occur
anaerobic
process that does NOT require oxygen to occur
allele
any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome
amino acid
the monomer of a protein; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
ATP synthase
enzyme that catalyses the reaction that adds a high energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
anabolism
the synthesis (making) of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism
asexual reproduction
process by which offspring are produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes
atom
the most basic unit of matter
autosomes
chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism (pairs 1-22 in karyotype)
anticodon
a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA
benign
having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
binary fission
asexual reproduction in which a cell divides into two equal parts
biology
scientific study of all forms of life
cancer
common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
carbohydrate
organic compound molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches
carcinogen
substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer
Calvin Cycle
process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2
catalyst
substance that decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction
cell
basic unit of life
catabolism
the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism (think of cannibalism)
cell cycle
pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell
cell differentiation
process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature form and function
cell membrane
double-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell
cell theory
theory that states that all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life
cell wall
rigid structure that gives protection, support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria.
cellular respiration
process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present
central dogma
theory that states that, in cell, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
centriole
small cylinder-shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle; aids mitosis AND makes microtubules
centromere
region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis. sister chromatids are held together in the middle by this
chemical reaction
process by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
chemosynthesis
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
chlorophyll
light-absorbed pigment molecule in photosynthetic organisms (NOT in animal cells)
chloroplast
organelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert sunlight into chemical energy and contains chlorophyll
Chargaff's Rules
A=T C=G
chromatid
one half of a duplicated chromosome
chromatin
loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
chromosome
long, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information
codon
sequence of 3 nucleotides (monomer of a nucleic acid) that codes for one amino acid
cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
compound
substance made of atoms of different elements that are bonded together in a specific ratio
concentration gradient
difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
crossing over
exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes in meiosis I that can increase genetic variation
cytoplasm
cell fluid; contains molecules within the cell and organelles
chromosomal mutation
large-scale alteration of the chromosomes of an organism, where either the number or the structure of chromosomes is changed; they seriously affect the structure, and the number of chromosomes in an organism and the eventual protein syntheses and gene expression will be altered (ex. Prader-Willi Syndrome)
complementary bases
either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA: guanine is the complementary base of cytosine, and adenine is the complementary base of thymine in DNA and of uracil in RNA.
control
a scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable; this increases the reliability of the results
controlled experiment
a test where the person conducting the test only changes one variable at a time in order to isolate the results
controlled variables
quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant, and she must observe them as carefully as the dependent variables (ex. temperature, light, time)
covalent bonds
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms (very strong)
dependent variable
also known as the responding variable; data collected through observation and measurement
dehydration synthesis
the process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water
denature
destroy the characteristic properties/functions of (a protein or other biological macromolecule) by heat, acidity, or other effects that disrupt its molecular conformation
diffusion
movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas fro a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
digestion
process by which large, complex molecules are broken down into smaller molecules that can be used by cells (a type of catabolism)
diploid
cell that has 2 copies of each chromosome, one form and egg and one from a sperm
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; molecule that stores all genetic information in an organism (contains all information needed to grow an organism)
DNA polymerase
enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication
dominant
allele that is expressed when 2 different alleles are present in an organism's genotype
double helix
model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule to that of a twisted ladder with 2 strands (shown in Watson and Crick's DNA molecule which was seen from Wilkens and Franklin)
dynamic equilibrium
a state of balance between continuing processes
egg
female gamete (also known as an ova)
electron transport chain
series of proteins in the thylakoid (in photosynthetic organisms) and mitochondrial membranes (in animals) that aid in converting ADP to ATP by transferring electrons
endosymbiosis
ecological relationship in which one organism lives within the body of another and they benefit from each other (not parasitic)
endothermic
chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy
exothermic
chemical reaction that yields a net release of energy in the form of heat
enzyme
protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
eukaryotic cell
cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
exponential growth
dramatic increase in population over a short period of time
exocytosis
release of substances out a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane (form of active transport)
endocytosis
intake of substances to a cell by the membrane to forming a vacuole into the living cell (form of active transport)
facilitated diffusion
diffusion of molecules assisted by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane (passive transport because of energy needed)
fatty acid
hydrocarbon chain usually bonded to glycerol in a lipid
feedback
information that is compared with a set of ideal values and aids in maintaining homeostasis
fermentation
anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis; usually used in body if oxygen is not present as it restarts glycolysis instead of going to the Krebs cycle
fertilization
fusion of an egg and sperm cell
fluid mosaic model
model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
gamete
sex cell; an egg or sperm cell
gametogenesis
process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
gene
specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
gene mutation
a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene; they range in size and can affect anywhere from a single DNA building block (base pair) to a large segment of a chromosome that includes multiple genes (ex. lactose intolerance)
genome
all of an organism's genetic material
genotype
collection of all of an organism's genetic information that codes for traits
golgi apparatus
stack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins (post office of cell)
guard cell
one pair of cells that control the opening and closing of a stoma in plants (using hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions)
glycolysis
breaks down glucose and forms pyruvate with the production of two molecules of ATP inside the cytoplasm; the pyruvate end product can be used in either anaerobic respiration (Krebs) if no oxygen is available or in aerobic respiration (Fermentation)
haploid
cell that has only one copy of each chromosome
heterotroph
organism that obtains its energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms (ex. wolf)
homeostasis
regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism (ex. shivering)
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
hydrogen bond
attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom
hypothesis
proposed explanation or answer to a scientific question (usually an if-then statement)
hypotonic
solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution (cell swells with solution if submerged in it)
hypertonic
the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is greater than that of another solution, or greater than the concentration in a cell (cell shrinks if submerged in it)
hydrolysis
the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction of water
ionic bond
chemical bond formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions (medium strong)
isotonic
movement of water out of the cell is exactly balanced by movement of water into the cell (has dynamic equilibrium)
independent variable (x)
a variable whose variation does not depend on that of another (the manipulated variable)
karyotype
image of all the chromosomes in a cell
Krebs cycle
following glycolysis, the mechanism of cellular respiration involves another multi-step process which uses the two molecules of pyruvic acid formed in glycolysis and yields high-energy molecules of NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), as well as some ATP
lactic acid
product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells (also why muscles burn after exercising)
light-dependent reactions
part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from sunlight and transfers energy to the light-independent reactions
light-independent reactions
part of photosynthesis that uses energy absorbed during the light-dependent reactions to synthesize carbohydrates
lipid
nonpolar molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes fats, oils, and waxes (organic compound)
lysosome
organelle that contains enzymes and breaks down cell waste (also called suicide sacs)
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it transforms from one form to another
malignant
cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health (they can metastasize)
meiosis
form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into 4 haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction (cells produced are not identical)
mesophyll
photosynthetic tissue of a leaf, located between the upper and lower epidermis
messenger RNA (mRNA)
form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis
metabolism
all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism
metaphase
second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
metastasize
to spread by transferring a disease-curing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
mitochondrion
bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
mitosis
process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents
monomer
subunit of a polymer or organic compound (ex. monosaccharide)
mutagen
agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms
monosaccharide
monomer of a carbohydrate (polysaccharide or sugar)
negative feedback
control system for homeostasis that adjusts the body's conditions when the conditions vary from the ideal (ex. body shivers to bring up the temperature if too cold)
nucleic acid
polymer of nucleotides; the genetic material of organisms (type of organic compound)
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acid that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base
nitrogen base
nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base; they are particularly important since they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil
nucleus
organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of a cell's DNA
organelle
membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell
osmosis
diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
organic compound
any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
passive transport
movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell
pH
measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution (lower= more acidic, higher= less acidic)
phagocyte
cell that destroys other cells by surrounding and engulfing them
phagocytosis
uptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle
phenotype
collection of all of an organism's physical characteristics
phospholipid
molecule that forms a double-layered cell membrane; consists of a glycerol, a phosphate group, and 2 fatty acids
photosynthesis
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
photosystem
series of light-absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoid membrane (along electron transport chain)
polymer
large, carbon-based molecule formed by monomers
positive feedback
control system in which sensory information causes the body to increase the rate of change away from homeostasis (ex. childbirth contractions)
pigments
any substance whose presence in the tissues or cells of animals or plants colors them
polar molecule
a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups (ex. water molecule as it has one side that is positively charged and one side that is negatively charged)
polypeptide
organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the whole of) a protein
polysaccharide
a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together
prokaryotic cell
cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
prophase
first phase of mitosis (PMAT) when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
protein
polymer/organic compound of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
Punnett square
model for predicting all possible genotypes resulting form a cross, or mating
protein channels
protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane
reactant
substance that is changed by a chemical reaction
recessive
allele that is not expressed unless 2 copies are present in an organism's genotype
replication
process by which DNA is copied (DNA makes DNA)
rough endoplasmic reticulum
interconnected network to produce, process/tag, and distribute proteins through transport proteins
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein
ribosome
organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins
rule of 8
the octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electronic configuration as a noble gas (which makes the chemical stable)
saturated fatty acid
single bonds within the acid chain; usually found in animals and are generally unhealthy
sex chromosome
chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics
selective permeability
condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier to membrane (ex. cell membrane)
sexual reproduction
process by which 2 gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
solute
substance that dissolved in a solvent and is present at a lower concentration that the solvent
solution
mixture that is consistent throughout; also called a homogeneous mixture
solvent
substance in which solutes dissolve and that is present in greatest concentration in a solution
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
helps to break down alcohol and drugs and is in cell
somatic cell
diploid cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes
species
group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
sperm
male gamete
start codon
codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
stem cell
cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated; can specialize into specific cells
substrate
reactant in a chemical reaction upon which an enzyme acts
surface area to volume ratio
when a cell increases in size, the volume of the cell increases faster than the surface area which is a reason why cells divide
symbiosis
ecological relationship between members of at least 2 different species that live in direct contact with each other
stoma/stomata
pores in the cuticle of a plant through which gas exchange occurs between guard cells
transport protein
a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism
transfer RNA (tRNA)
nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis; it reads the message of nucleic acids, or nucleotides, and translate it into proteins, or amino acids. The process of making a protein from an mRNA template is called translation
telomere
repeating nucleotide at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes (like an aglet)
telophase
last phase of mitosis (PMAT) when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membranes start to form the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble
theory
proposed explanation for a wide variety of observations and experimental results
thylakoid
membrane-bound structure within chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and other light-absorbing pigments used in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
transcription
process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
translation
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
unsaturated fatty acid
there is at least one double bond within the acid chain; usually found in plants
vacuole
organelle that is used to store materials, such as water, food, or enzymes, that are needed by the cell (fluid-filled sacs)
zygote
cell that forms when a male gamete fertilizes a female gamete

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