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What makes defining abnormality difficult?

There is no clear dividing line that serves to distinguish different behavior from that which is abnormal.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?

When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior information is lost.

In the United States the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the:

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

What is the most prevalent kind of psychological disorder?

anxiety disorders

In ancient times one of the treatments for abnormal behavior that consisted of prayer, incantations, and noise-making were all techniques for:

exorcising demons

The approaches to treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages in Europe are best characterized as:


What is "mass madness"?

an exhibition of disordered behavior by a group of people that appears to be caused by hysteria

If you visited an asylum in the 16th Century Europe like Bedlam you would likely find:

mentally ill people living in conditions of fifth and cruelty

Phillipe Pinel

believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such with kindness and caring

Who increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the US

Dorothea Dix

What classified twentieth century treatment of mental patients


What is the most important limitation of correlation studies

They cannot determine cause and effect.

In a study of ice cream on mood, the ice cream can be described as what?

the independent variable

In a study of the effects of ice cream on the mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as what?

the dependent variable

A predisposition towards developing a disorder is called:

a diathesis

Suppose that low self-esteem is a diathesis for developing depression later in life. This mean that:

people with low self-esteem have a predisposition for developing depression

When psychologists say that a person shows resilience it means

the person can successfully adapt and survive in threatening circumstances

Dr. Simon, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. What focus for treatment is he most likely to suggest for Julia's current state of depression?

that the person can successfully adapt and survive in threatening circumstances

The site of communication between two neurons is the


Which of the following elements of the personality can be described as impulsive and selfish? ideal self, superego, ego, id


Freud's view of mental disorders was that they were a result of

unresolved conflicts between the id, the ego and the superego

Newer psychodynamic perspectives

do not view the libido as a primary determinant of behavior

After being bitten by a dog, Jose finds that he feels afraid whenever he sees a dog. In classical conditioning terms, the dog can be described as a(n)

conditioned stimulus

Due to ________, we can learn from the experiences of others.

observational learning

Behaviorists suggest maladaptive behavior can be a result of

failure to learn adaptive behaviors

Cognitive-behavioral psychologists believe that abnormal behavior

results from distorted thinking and information processing

A psychologist who studied the relationship between sociocultural factors and mental disorders would be most likely to study

poverty and racial discrimination

A person comes to a mental health professional with a certain complaint. The professional attempts to understand the nature and extent of the problem. This process is called:


What role does the social context play in assessment:

an evaluation of the environment in which the client lives in necessary in order to understand the demands he faces, as well as the supports that are present

Dr. Kim is a psychologist who uses a number of tests to measure a person's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance to detect brain damage. Dr. Kim is probably a specialist in using

neuropsychological assessment

Ed has suffered a head injury in a car accident. He is referred to a psychologist to see what types of impairment now exist and to get some suggestions for treatment. The best assessment strategy would be

neuropsychological tests

A psychosocial assessment typically begins with

an interview

A clinical psychologist notes that a client wears his clothes inside out, that his hair is matted, and there is dirt under his fingernails. This information is known as

clinical observation

What would determine whether the WISC-III or the WAIS-III is used to test intelligence?

age of the client

"Projective" and "objective" are two types of ______tests.


which of the following is an objective test? MMPI-2, sentence-completion, rorschach test, thematic appreciation


Why is classification a necessary first step in developing an understanding about abnormal behavior?

communication about abnormal behavior can not be effective unless what is being discussed in clear

During an assessment interview, Dr. Poole noted that Jane's boss at work was harassing her. On which of the five axes of the DSM would this information be noted?

Axis IV

One criticism of diagnostic labels is that

they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person's perception of themselves in negative ways

Eustress is

a response to a happy life event

What do eustress and distress have in common?

both tax ones resources and coping skills

The "fight" or "flight" response

is made possible by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Give an example of task-oriented coping

leaving the cheating spouse

Give examples of defense-oriented coping

denial, repression, crying

Megan's boyfriend suddenly broke up with her. Megan spends most evenings crying. She calls her friends over and over to talk about the relationship and the break-up, to the point that her friends are beginning to dread talking to her. How is Megan reacting to this stress?

using a defense-oriented response to stress

Adjustment disorders

develop in response to normal life events

Acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when:

the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks

PTSD symptoms:

vary considerably depending on the characteristics of the trauma and the victim

Describe what the use of stress-inoculation training may be most effective:

preparing for chemotherapy

Provide an example of direct therapeutic exposure

visiting an accident site

Fear or panic is a basic emotion that involves

the activation of the "fight" or "flight" response

What are the seven primary types of anxiety

1) obsessive-compulsive disorder

Martin is afraid to fly. He knows his boss wants him to take a trip for the business. Martin feels miserable, because he wants to keep his job but cannot even imagine getting on a plane. The most likely diagnosis for Martin is

specific phobia, situation type

Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties because she is afraid that she will blush and sweat, and that other people will laugh at her. She is fine talking to people in one-on-one settings. Kayla's most likely diagnosis is

social phobia

Compared to anxiety, panic is

more intense

Panic disorders are often misdiagnosed because

symptoms are so somatic they are treated by physicians for medical problems

Mrs. B. tells her psychologists, "I cannot leave a certain region around my home without having terrible fears. I am terribly worried when I am in a car or bus. I am afraid I will have another one of those terrifying experiences." What disorder does Mrs. B probably have and what experience is she talking about?

the disorder is agoraphobia, the experience is a panic attack

Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school and that she might get sick and leaver her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired but cannot sleep or relax. Amber's most likely diagnosis is

generalized anxiety disorder

Persistent and recurrent thoughts are


Most people with obsessive-compulsive disorder

experience both obsessions and compulsions

What provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?

attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more

Anxiety disorders

probably exist in all societies, but take different forms in different cultures

Conditions involving physical complaints or disabilities occurring in the absence of any physical pathology that could account for them are

somatoform disorders

List some somatoform disorders

conversion disorder
somatization disorder
(NOT fugue)

Consciously faking symptoms is characteristic of


Jessica spends much of her day counting or saying certain words to herself. When she is not doing this, she is checking whether she left her doors unlocked. These symptoms illustrate


Evan is terrified because he is convinced that he has a terminal heart condition. He has consulted with several physicians about it who have found no evidence if any heart disease. Interestingly, Evan feels disappointed when the doctors find no physical problem. His diagnosis is probably


Kristie is talking to a career counselor at college. She suddenly announces that it is pointless to discuss jobs, when she knows that her face is incredibly hideous due to her huge number of acne scars. The counselor is surprised, because, while she can barely see a couple of scars at Kristie's hairline, they were not noticeable until Kristie pointed them out. It is probably that Kristie suffers from

body dysmorphic disorder

The disorder involving the experience of sudden loss of the sense of self is

depersonalization disorder

Gerard became amnesic, wandered away from home and assumed a completely new identity as a shoe salesman. He suffers from

dissociative fugue

Dissociative identity disorder was formerly known as

multiple personality disorder

Brigid had been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. Brigid is the host personality. We can expect that the alter identities

are strikingly different from Brigid

Which of the following summarizes the post-traumatic theory for the origin of DID?

Children deal with severe abuse by creating alters who provide an "escape"

The treatment goal for most therapists who treat dissociative identity disorder is

integration of the alter personalities

Historically, why has little attention been paid to childhood psychopathology

childhood disorders were viewed as childhood versions of adult disorders

What protects children from environmental stressors, but also makes them more vulnerable?

dependence on adults

George is in 2nd grade and is having trouble. He frequently is out of his seat, looking at the work of other students and annoying them by making comments. He interrupts the teacher, blurts out answers before she finishes the question and usually needs directions repeated multiple times. At home, his mother says he is always "on the go". The most likely diagnosis for George is


Treatment of ADHD with drugs such as Ritalin is thought to be effective as it

increases the ability to concentrate

What two childhood disorders are characterized by aggressive or antisocial behavior?

oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder

The families of children with conduct disorders typically

involve rejection and neglect

The most common childhood anxiety disorder is ______.

separation anxiety

Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents

may be increased by taking SSRIs or anti-depressants

Asperger's disorder is

similar to but less sever than autism

In autistic children, head banging, spinning in circles, and rocking are behaviors that

are common forms of self-stimulation

The most widely known and studied learning disorder is


One of the most important factors in the treatment of children and adolescents is

parental willingness to be involved in treatment

The majority of cases of schizophrenia begin in

late adolescence and early adulthood

Give an example of delusion

thinking others have control over your thoughts

Give a common type of hallucination associated with schizophrenia

ignoring the voices in your head

If a schizophrenic giggles a lot, acts silly, and talks "baby talk", and he/she is experiencing auditory hallucinations and bizarre delusions, the most likely belong to what subtype?

disorganized schizophrenia

Central features to catatonic schizophrenia are

excited/stuporous motor symptoms

Central features to paranoid schizophrenia are

having delusions of grandeur

Psychosis means

a significant loss of contact with reality

What characterizes current knowledge of schizophrenia

while much is known about the causes, there are many questions still to be answered

A family feature important to schizophrenia

level of expressed emotion (EE)

Most people with schizophrenia

continue to show signs of illness

First-generation of conventional antipsychotics work by

blocking dopamine

Extrapyrimidal side effects

are involuntary (motor) movements that result mainly from taking first-generation antipsychotic drugs.

What remains a cross-cultural similarity of sexual behavior

taboos on sex between close relatives

Define paraphilia

persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction

People with transvestic fetishism

are usually heterosexual; but yearn for women's clothes and to dress like a woman

Most common sexual offense reported by police


The _______enjoys inflicting pain, while the ______ desires pain and degradation.

sadist, masochist

People with gender identity disorder

wish they were the opposite sex; feel they inhabit the wrong sexed body

Adults with gender identify disorder are usually referred to as


The only treatment for gender dysphoria is

surgical sex reassignment

Pedophilia frequently involves

fondling of children

The most common form of incest is between

brother and sister

Sexual dysfunctions

involve the impairment of either the desire for sexual gratification or the ability to achieve it

Which phase of the sexual response is there a characteristic sense of well-being and relaxation


Describe someone with a personality disorder

difficult to be around; unpredictable behavior; annoying to others; doesn't learn from bad experiences; usual present in adolescence

Behavioral patterns of people with personality disorder are thought to be

consistent over time, with little adaptation to new kinds of experiences

"Clusters" of personality disorders found in the DSM-IV-TR are grouped based on

symptom similarities

What are Cluster B personality disorders

narcissistic, histrionic, borderline

Describe someone with paranoid personality disorder

suspicious and doubts loyalty; unwilling to forgive perceived insults and never forgets a grudge

Central problem with schizoid paranoia

inability to form attachments to other people

Describe someone with histrionic personality disorder

vain and self-centered; ensures center of attention; drama queen; behaviors are sufficient enough to be classified as Axis II diagnosis

Describe someone with narcissistic personality disorder

believes that they are better at things than they are; anyone who doesn't like them is jealous of their superior intelligence; entitled to be exempted from tasks that everyone else must do because they are so great

Which personality disorder is more common in men than women, and involves the exploitation of others without remorse

antisocial personality disorder

Describe someone with a borderline personality disorder

idealizes men and then is afraid of abandonment; feelings of emptiness change into reckless acts of promiscuity, gambling, and suicide attempts; never has a sense of self

Contrast avoidant personality disorder to schizophrenia

people with avoidant personality disorder are extremely upset by their lack of social relationships

Describe someone with dependent personality disorder

calls spouse everyday at work; spends days with parents because afraid something will go wrong at home that they can't handle; doesn't think they are good at anything

Why is it such a challenge to treat a personality disorder

they are defined by enduring patterns of thought and behavior

Anorexia can lead to


Commonalities between people diagnosed with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are

fear of being or becoming fat

When are most eating disorders diagnosed

teens and early 20s

A common sign of bulimia nervosa; purging type

damaged teeth and mouth ulcers

Why are whites at a higher risk for eating disorders

body dissatisfaction; media

Which neurotransmitter is involved in both eating disorders and depression


The influence of television on the attitudes towards eating in Fiji demonstrate that

environmental factors such as exposure to western media can alter societal attitudes such that the risk of developing eating disorders is increased

Families of people with anorexia

exhibit tendencies towards perfectionism

Common among families of girls with anorexia is

parents who emphasize rules, control, and good physical appearance

Discuss the body image perspective as it differs between men and women

young women are more likely to be dissatisfied than young men

Current knowledge of the efficacy of treating eating disorders is

much more detailed for anorexia nervosa than for bulimia nervosa

Obesity in the US

is increasing as it is in many other countries

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