88 terms

Final Honors Biology: VOCAB

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Activation energy
- energy required to start a reaction
Active site
- where chemical reaction occurs
- structural element of protein that determines whether the protein is functional when undergoing a reaction from an enzyme
Active transport
- movement of ions/ molecules across membrane from a lower to a higher concentration
- uses energy
Amino acid
- building blocks of proteins
- 20 different amino acids in nature
- they link together peptide bonds in a particular order as defined by genes
Anabolism
- when the body uses food to build or mend cells
- requires energy
Anticodon
- set of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complimentary mRNA codon during translation
ATP
- A molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions
autosomes
- chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
Calvin Cycle
- process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2
catabalism
- destructive metabolism
- the breaking down in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones
- releases energy
cell cycle
- pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell
cell membrane
- double layer of phospholipids that form a boundary between a cell and the environment
- controls the passage of materials in and out of the cell (small molecules only)
cell theory
- states that all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by living cells and the cell is the most basic unit of life
cell wall
- rigid structure that gives protection, support and shape to cells
cellular respiration
- process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon based molecules when Oxygen is present
Chargaff's Rule
- A = T
- G = C
chemosynthesis
- process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
chlorophyll
- light absorbing pigment molecule in photosynthetic organisms (green)
chloroplasts
- organelle composed of many membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy
chromatin
- unwound DNA
codon
- sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
complementary bases
- either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA
- G base of C
- A base of T
- U in RNA
control
- to rate/ compare to the other components we are testing in the experiment - example: in the UV lab we put no sunscreen on one petri dish, in Leaf Disk lab we put one cup with the leaves in the dark
controlled experiment
- where control variables do not change so that the y variable is impacted in the experiment
controlled variables
- variables in an experiment that do not change
covalent bonds
- chemical bond formed when 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
crossing over
- exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
cytoplasm
- jelly like substance inside cells that contains all of the organelles
dehydration synthesis
- is the process of joining two molecules together following the removal of water
denature
- when proteins change shape in heat
dependent variable
- variable that is observed and measured in an experiment
diffusion
- movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from high to low concentration
diploid
- cell that has 2 copies of each chromosome (one from egg and one from sperm)
DNA
- molecule that stores genetic information in all cells (DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid)
dynamic equilibrium
- a state of balance between continuing processes.
electron transport chain
- series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membranes that aid in converting ADP into ATP by transferring electrons
endosymbiosis
- ecological relationship in which one organism lives in the body of the another (Cell lives inside a cell)
enzyme
- protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
eukaryotic cell
- cell that has a nucleus and organelles
fermentation
- non oxygen (anaerobic) by which ATP is produced by glycolsis
gametes
- sex cell (egg or sperm cell)
gene
- specific region of DNA that codes for a protein
glycolisis
- non oxygen process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and 2 ATP are produced
haploid
- cell that only has one copy of each chromosome
homeostasis
- constant internal conditions
homologous chromosomes
- chromosomes that have the same length, appearance and copies of genes
hydrogen bonds
- easily broken (weak) attraction between a positive and a negative atom
hydrolosis
- the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water
hypertonic
- solution that has a HIGH concentration of dissolved particles compared to another solution
hypotonic
- solution that has a LOW concentration of dissolved particles compared to another solutions
independent variable
- factor that is manipulated
ionic bonds
- chemical bond formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
isotonic
- solution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles
karyotype
- picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
Krebs Cycle
- process during CR that breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in ETC
Law of Conservation of Energy
- principle that states total amount of energy is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, always the same
meiosis
- nuclear division that divides a diploid cells into haploid cells
- important in forming sex cells for reproduction
mitochondria
- powerhouse of the cell, bean shaped organelle, energy supplier, has it's own DNA and ribosomes
mitosis
- process by which a cell divides it's nucleus and contents
monomer
- molecular subunit of a polymer (basic unit of polymer)
monosaccharide
- simplest form of a carbohydrate (a simple sugar)
- example: glucose, and ribose
mutation
- occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene
negative feedback
- control system for homeostasis that adjusts for a body's condition
nitrogen bases
- a nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base - they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil.
nucleotide
- monomer that forms DNA and has a: phosphate group, sugar and nitrogen base
organelle
- membrane structure that is specialized to perform a certain function in a cell
organic compounds
- compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and often oxygen or nitrogen
- examples: carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins.
osmosis
- diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane
- higher water concentration to lower water concentration
passive transport
- movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input
phospholipid
- molecule that forms a double layer cell membrane
- consists of: glycerol, phosphate group and 2 fatty acids
photosynthesis
- process when light energy is converted into chemical energy
- produces sugar and oxygen from CO2 and H2O
pigments
- protein that gives a characteristic color to plant or animal tissues and is involved in vital processes
polar molecule
- when one end of a molecule is slightly positive and the other end is slightly negative
polymer
- large carbon based molecule formed by monomers
polypeptide
- fancy protein
polysaccharide
- long-chain carbohydrate made up of smaller carbohydrates called monosaccharides
- used by our bodies for energy or to help with cellular structure
prokaryotic
- cell with no nucleus however still has DNA material
protein
- polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
protein channels
- a protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane
replication
- process by which DNA is copied
RNA (3 types)
- nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transfer genetic info and protein synthesis
rule of 8
- atoms will lose, gain or share electrons get 8 valence electrons
sex chromosomes
- chromosome that directly controls characteristics of sexual reproduction
substrate
- reactant in a chemical reaction upon which an enzyme acts
SA to Volume ratio
- volume grows faster than SA
transcription
- process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a strand of mRNA
translation
- process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
transport proteins
- found within the plasma membrane of a cell
- each transport protein only allows a certain molecule to enter or exit the cell