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Psychology Ch: 8 Human Development

Terms in this set (34)

Proposed a stage theory of moral reasoning that has been extremely influential in the study of moral development

Measuring Moral Reasoning:
Presented participants with moral dilemmas and asked open ended question such as, "What do you think Heinz should do?" or "Is stealing justified and why?"

Levels and Stages:
Pre-conventional Level
Lower level of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the physical consequences of an act; "right" is whatever avoids punishment and gains a reward

Stage 1
Behavior that avoids punishment is right
Children obey out of fear of punishment

Stage 2
Stage of self-interest
What is right is what benefits the individual or gains favor in return

Conventional Level
Second level of moral development, in which right and wrong are based on the internalized standards of others; "right" is whatever helps or is approved of by others, or whatever is consistent with the laws of society S

Stage 3
good boy-nice girl orientation--> child acts to please and help others
morality of mutual relationship
Actions that are disapproved of are considered immoral

Stage 4
Morality of social system and conscious

Orientation moves beyond the social group and shifts to the maintenance of the larger social order in which the group is imbedded and obedience to authority

Not blind obedience to authority

Based on realization that rules are necessary and that individuals' and subgroups' needs desires must be subjugated to those of the larger group to avoid every man for himself type of world

Duty and responsibility are central
When challenges to authority are necessary they must be carried out in morally acceptable ways

Post-Conventional Level
Highest of moral development, in which moral reasoning involves weighing moral alternatives; "right" is whatever furthers basic human rights

Stage 5:
respect for individual rights and laws that are democratically agreed on

Rational valuing of the wishes of the majority and the general welfare

Belief that society is best served if citizens obey the law

Person believes that laws are formulated to protect both society and individuals and should be changed if they fail to do so

Stage 6
Highest of the highest social level
Morality of universal ethical principles
Person acts according to internal standards independent of legal restrictions or opinions of others
1. INFANCY: BIRTH-18 MONTHS OLD
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust - Hope

During the first or second year of life, the major emphasis is on the mother and father's nurturing ability and care for a child, especially in terms of visual contact and touch. The child will develop optimism, trust, confidence, and security if properly cared for and handled. If a child does not experience trust, he or she may develop insecurity, worthlessness, and general mistrust to the world.

2. TODDLER / EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS: 18 MONTHS TO 3 YEARS
Autonomy vs. Shame - Will

The second stage occurs between 18 months and 3 years. At this point, the child has an opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as he or she learns new skills and right from wrong. The well-cared for child is sure of himself, carrying himself or herself with pride rather than shame. During this time of the "terrible twos", defiance, temper tantrums, and stubbornness can also appear. Children tend to be vulnerable during this stage, sometimes feeling shame and and low self-esteem during an inability to learn certain skills.

3. PRESCHOOLER: 3 TO 5 YEARS
Initiative vs. Guilt - Purpose

During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make up stories with Barbie's and Ken's, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for what we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—"WHY?"

While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic "Oedipal struggle" and resolve this struggle through "social role identification." If we're frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt.

The most significant relationship is with the basic family.

4. SCHOOL AGE CHILD: 6 TO 12 YEARS
Industry vs. Inferiority - Competence

During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem.

As the world expands a bit, our most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important.

5. ADOLESCENT: 12 TO 18 YEARS
Identity vs. Role Confusion - Fidelity

Up until this fifth stage, development depends on what is done to a person. At this point, development now depends primarily upon what a person does. An adolescent must struggle to discover and find his or her own identity, while negotiating and struggling with social interactions and "fitting in", and developing a sense of morality and right from wrong.

Some attempt to delay entrance to adulthood and withdraw from responsibilities (moratorium). Those unsuccessful with this stage tend to experience role confusion and upheaval. Adolescents begin to develop a strong affiliation and devotion to ideals, causes, and friends.

6. YOUNG ADULT: 18 TO 35
Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation - Love

At the young adult stage, people tend to seek companionship and love. Some also begin to "settle down" and start families, although seems to have been pushed back farther in recent years.

Young adults seek deep intimacy and satisfying relationships, but if unsuccessful, isolation may occur. Significant relationships at this stage are with marital partners and friends.

7. MIDDLE-AGED ADULT: 35 TO 55 OR 65
Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation - Care

Career and work are the most important things at this stage, along with family. Middle adulthood is also the time when people can take on greater responsibilities and control.

For this stage, working to establish stability and Erikson's idea of generativity - attempting to produce something that makes a difference to society. Inactivity and meaninglessness are common fears during this stage.

Major life shifts can occur during this stage. For example, children leave the household, careers can change, and so on. Some may struggle with finding purpose. Significant relationships are those within the family, workplace, local church and other communities.

8. LATE ADULT: 55 OR 65 TO DEATH
Integrity vs. Despair - Wisdom

Erikson believed that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage involves much reflection. As older adults, some can look back with a feeling of integrity — that is, contentment and fulfillment, having led a meaningful life and valuable contribution to society. Others may have a sense of despair during this stage, reflecting upon their experiences and failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering "What was the point of life? Was it worth it?"
From Conception to Birth

Prenatal Development
Begins before the first trimester ends
Stages of Prenatal Development
Zygote
Cell that results from a union of a sperm and an ovum
Travels to uterus and attaches self to uterine wall
Known as period of the zygote or germinal stage

Embryo
Development of human organism from week 3 through 8 when major systems, organs, and structures of the develop
Known as period the of embryo
Most critical stage, highest risk period for damage to occur

Fetus
Developing human organism from week 9 until birth when rapid growth and further development of structures, organs, and systems of the body occur
Known as period the of fetus
Negative Influences on Prenatal Development
Teratogens
Harmful agents in the prenatal environment, which can have a negative impact on personal development or cause birth defects
Most devastating consequences during period of the embryo
Teratogenic agents that cross the placenta
German measles and Chickenpox
X-rays and other radiation
oSexually transmitted diseases
Cigarette smoke:
attention problems
hyperactivity
decreased IQ
perceptual-motor problems

Critical Period
A period so important to development that a harmful environmental influence at that time can keep a bodily structure from developing normally or can impair later intellectual or social development

Use of heroin, cocaine, and crack during pregnancy has been linked to miscarriage, prematurity, low birth weight, breathing difficulties, physical defects, and fetal death

Smoking decreases the amount of oxygen and increase the amount of carbon monoxide crossing the placental barrier and increases the probability of low birth weight and prematurity

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Caused by maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, in which the baby is born with mental retardation, with a small head and facial, organ, and behavioral abnormalities
Alcohol affects every cell in the body therefore it is the most dangerous

Fetal Cocaine Syndrome
Increased risk for premature birth
Behavior abnormalities

Birth
Neonate
Newborn infant up to 1 pound

Low-birth-weight babies
Baby weighing less than 5.5 pounds

Perterm infants (premature infant)
Infant born before the 37th week and weighing less than 5.5 pounds

• Factors that influence development
Genetics
Biomedical influences
Nutrition
Proximal development
Demographic-cultural influences
Authoritarian parents
Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestionable obedience from their children, punish transgressions, and value obedience to authority

Tend to be uncommunitive, unresponsive, and distant

Preschooled children disciplined in this way are withdrawn, anxious, and unhappy

Authoritative Parents
Parents set high but realistic standards, reason with the child, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence, firm but fair

Parents are generally warm, nurturant, supportive, and responsive and show respect for their children

Children are mature, happy, self-reliant, self-controlled, assertive, socially competent and responsible

Ideal parenting style

Permissive/Laissez-faire Parents
Parents who make few rules and demands and allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior

Permissive Indulgent
parents are warm and supportive

Believe permissiveness is way of expressing affection and maintain children's affection for them

Children are most immature, impulsive, and dependent and the least self-controlled and self-reliant

Permissive Neglectful
Parents lack warmth and allow children to do as they please because they are not interested in them or in supporting their development

Style of parenting associated with drinking problems, promiscuous sex, delinquent behavior, and poor academic performance in adolescence

Rejecting-Neglecting
Completely unengaged

Children have the most problems, are impulsive, and have poor academic performance