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Terms in this set (89)
Lecture 18: Classic Maya: Where & When?
Mesoamerica: (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, & El Salvador)
A.D. 250 - 900
Lecture 18: Epigraphy
The study of ancient inscription. (Plays major role in Classic Maya studies.)
Lecture 18: General Characteristics of Maya cities
City-states centered on Divine Kingship
Stelae and altars: royal messages
Lecture 18: Evaluating the Ancient Maya City of La Milpa, Belize in absence of hieroglyphic text
Subtropical forest reserve (Rio Bravo Research Station)
Maps/models created based on findings
Lecture 18: Importance of studying 'collapse' in the archaeological record
Societal collapse is one of the few concepts available for examining the longevity and decline of cities.
Cities expand/contract and are abandoned without total societal collapse (others survive societal collapse)
Important for global comparisons of urbanism and the organization of human settlements.
Lecture 19: Civilization & concept of 'city'
Civilization is closely linked to the concept of city.
Latin civis: Inhabitant of a city
Latin civitas: Urban community
Lecture 19: Centers of early civilization (geography)
Neolithic regions evolved into cities
Mesoamerica, Peru, Nile Valley, Great Zimbabwe, Lower Mesopotamia, Indus, & Hsia
Lecture 19: Definition of a city (Demographic vs. Functional Definition)
Demographic: Relatively large, dense, and permanent. Social complexity, classes, economic specialization, etc.
Functional: Downplays role of population size. Focus on role that settlements play within regional context. Setting for institutions and activities for a larger hinterland. Recognizes various kinds of urbanism.
Lecture 19:Urban functions
Political (Palace or seat of political administration)
Economic (Craft workshops, markets, warehouses)
Religious functions (Major temples or pilgrimage center)
Cultural functions (Artistic production, education, recreation)
Lecture 19: Concept of city (functional) among ancient civilizations
Key institutions tend to be centered in a small number of settlements, these locales would constitute cities in the functional definition.
Lecture 19: Çatalhoyük, Turkey (General Info)
~9300 - 8200 BP
No side entrances; entered from rooftops/ladders
Lecture 19: Çatalhoyük, Turkey (Storage Facilities)
Change from communal to more household
Lecture 19: Çatalhoyük, Turkey (Architectural complexity)
Floors: low platforms or different heights
Plastered, painted, walls
Lecture 19: Çatalhoyük, Turkey (Neolithic Tells)
Building on top of a shelter after it's been broken or destroyed.
Lecture 19: Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (General Info)
1300 - 700 BP
Anasazi or Ancestral Puebloan
Lecture 19: Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Pueblo Bonito)
Largest Great House
Planned construction episodes
No hearths found in many of the rooms, but top floors collapsed
Population estimates: 100s to 1000s
Lecture 19: Chaco Canyon, New Mexico ("Elite" burials? Central Authority?)
Hundreds of turquoise pendants
Thousands of turquoise beads
40 shell bracelets
Cylinder shaped basket inlayed with turquoise and filled with turquoise and shell beads
Lecture 19: Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Road network extending from Chaco)
'Road' network from Chaco to outlying areas. Stairs carved in cliff face (wanted to keep roads straight)
Lecture 19: Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Turquoise production)
Part-time, simple technology; not controlled by great house leaders
Lecture 19: Teotihuacan, Mexico (General Info)
2150 - 1250 BP
Population rapidly expanded
Lecture 19: Teotihuacan, Mexico (Pyramids; monumental architecture)
Planned layout of city
Lecture 19: Teotihuacan, Mexico (Political, economic, religious authority)
A lot of influence beyond Valley of Mexico
Lecture 19: Teotihuacan, Mexico (Craft production and economic specialization)
25% of 100k - 200k residents were craft specialists
Obsidian, feathers, potters, painters, masons, etc.
Lecture 19: Teotihuacan, Mexico (Residential pattern: social/economic 'barrios' or neighborhoods)
Most people lives in multi-family walled apartment compounds
Lecture 19: Teotihuacan, Mexico (Street of the Dead)
Major north-south avenue, divided the city (planned layout)
Lecture 19: Cities as a process of change in key variables
Changes in particular variables
Goods/services within a limited area
Increase in social/economic complexity
Increase in population density
More centralized authority
Lecture 20: Planned vs. Unplanned (In general literature)
Common in literature on ancient cities.
Presence of 'grid' often used as criterion for 'planned' cities
Lecture 20: Organic vs. Orthogonal
Organic: cities without discernible direction of coordination in growth.
Lecture 20: Problem with organic
'Organic' doesn't cover the variation in ancient cities
Lecture 20: City planners in ancient cities
Kings and other members of urban elite class (central planning)
Lecture 20: Coordinated arrangement of buildings and spaces (evidence/examples)
Individual architectural features arranged and constructed within reference to one another
/share orientation and/or arrangements through common reference features such as avenues, plazas, city walls, a royal palace, or other urban architecture
Lecture 20: Formality and Monumentality (evidence/examples)
Axiality (use of straight avenues)
Large, open plazas
Symmetrical arrangements of buildings
Walled areas of limited access, formal gates or entrances
Lecture 20: Semi-orthogonality
Occurs in dense settlements in which individual houses abut one another
Lecture 20: Integrated orthogonality
Suggests higher level of planning
Buildings are aligned orthogonally with respect to one or more large scale features
Lecture 20: Modular orthogonality
A higher level of central planning
Integrated orthogonal plan with very regular street layout
Lecture 20: Access and Visibility (evidence/examples)
Walls with gates, passageways, and plazas served to channel people in and out of the city.
Many cities were laid out around centrally located walled compounds.
Lecture 20: Standardization among cities (concept/difficult)
Presence of similar buildings, layouts and other featured among related cities
Requires data from multiple cities
Sampling problems: which cities to sample, how many, how is 'similarity' measured?
Lecture 20: Architectural inventories
Basic inventory of public buildings and features among a number of related cities, suggests the use of common plans or ideas of urban form
Maya: temple pyramids, rectangular plazas, royal compound, etc.
Inca: distinctive stonework, orthogonal layout, standard inventories of buildings
Lecture 20: Spatial patters
Presence of common spacial patters among cities reflect strong urban planning
Lecture 20: Degrees of urban planning (how measured?)
Some urban traditions show higher levels of planning than other
Various degrees or urban planning exhibited within and between urban traditions
Can be measured in absolute terms or relative terms (proportion of total city area that exhibits planning)
Relation ship between central authority (ruling elite) and majority of population (commoner class)
Lecture 21: Contemporary focus of urban studies, with potential in archaeology
Ancient and modern cities result from limited range of configurations that structure human action in concentrated populations.
Lecture 21: Problems with focusing on modern cities only
Place limitations on comparisons between ancient and modern phenomena like cities, urbanism, or human impacts on the environment.
Preclude potential discovery of cycles, trends, and other patterns over long periods of history.
Lecture 21: Urban Sprawl (concept, contemporary problem, archaeological contributions)
Concept: Extension of low-density settlement outwards from cities to countryside.
Contemporary problem: General assumed to be a problem brought on by expansion of automobile use. Major costs: inflated costs of infrastructure/services, loss of agricultural land/open spaces, excess travel/congestion, energy/environmental costs.
Archaeological contributions: Low-density, scattered, urban development without systematic large-scale or regional public land-use planning. Existed around many ancient cities.
Lecture 21: Squatters settlements (concept, contemporary problems, archaeological contribution)
Concept: Squatters and associated poverty are one of the most serious problems facing cities in less-developed countries. Similarities between ancient urban settlement and modern informal settlements (warrants exploration)
Contemporary problems: Massive growth in informal settlements around the world outpace attempts to destroy them and programs to provide services.
Archaeological contribution: Archaeologists can identify planning principles of political authorities in residential zones (and lack there-of)
Lecture 21: Urban sustainability (concept, contemporary problems, archaeological contribution)
Concept: Often implied reducing Ecological Footprint (energy, water, land materials, waste) while also improving quality of life (health, housing, employment, community)
Contemporary problems: Most definitions include dual components or current practices and potential future outcomes.
Archaeological contribution: Societal collapse is one of the few concept available for examining the longevity and decline of cities. Cities expand/contract and are abandoned without total societal collapse (in many cases cities survive episodes of societal collapse)
Lecture 21: Directions for archaeologists
1. Comparison of well-studied urban sites to identify factors that may correlate with longevity (among urban traditions).
2. Examination of regionally based samples of urban sites to search for regional-specific factors (within urban traditions)
3. Site-catchment analysis (similar to ecological footprint in sustainability research)
Lecture 22: Agricultural Innovation
Farming methods (intensification);
swidden agriculture and fallow periods ('slash & burn' technique)
Lecture 22:Diversity of Labor (Economic Specialization)
increased trade and material movement
Lecture 22: Diversity of Labor (Economic Specialization): Non-food producing segment of society
Religious and intellectual specialists
Lecture 22: Central government
Fortifications (ensured protection)
impose order (ensured that different interest groups did not infringe on the rights of others)
taxes (levied taxes, appointed tax collectors)
city planning, public works
Lecture 22: Social Stratification
Size of dwelling (labor investment)
access to materials
Lecture 22: Hydraulic Theory
Irrigation systems required a degree of social organization that led to civilization
Larger communities located at end of canals
Lecture 22: Trade Networks
Needed to distribute food to population; long distance trade, local markets
Lecture 22: Circumscription
Environmental barrier keep people in one place.
Lecture 22: Religious Theory
Beliefs regulate interaction with people and environment
Lecture 22: General Characteristics of Early Holocene
Independent transitions to agriculture
Lecture 22: General Characteristics of Late Holocene
Significant population growth, villages and cities, and formation of states and empires
Lecture 23: Yellow/Yangtze Rivers
Rice cultivation, irrigated plains of lower Yellow River
Lecture 23: Pre-Imperial vs. Imperial urbanism
Many more Chinese Dynasties during the time of Imperial Urbanism
Lecture 23: Eastern Zhou States (770-221 BC) Coins & Commerce
Walled cities, walled kingdoms, protection from nomads and from each other
Centers of administration, commerce, and manufacturing (By 400 BC, most Eastern Zhou States minted their own coins, different shapes/different kingdoms)
Lecture 23: Warring States Period (451-221 BC)
260 BC, ruler of Qin defeated greatest rival Zhao, killing 400,00 prisoners
Population growth and iron weaponry changed nature of warfare:
armies numbered tens of thousands; cavalry and infantry
iron swords, sometimes with fine jade fittings
cross-bow - a Chinese invention
Lecture 23: Qin Shihuangdi (221-210 B.C.)
Credited with unifying China under single empire
Known for militaristic achievements
Created a very centralized imperial administration
Instituted ambitious road building network
Standardized coins; systems of weights and measures
Created the Great Wall, stretched over 3000 miles
Lecture 23: Xianyang Capital
5 main roads led outward from capital to provinces
Dynasties and walled cities
Lecture 23: Tomb and warriors
Most elaborate tomb ever discovered in China
Four huge pits to the east of the tomb enclosure (Largest pit: thousands of life-sized terracotta statues of Qin soldiers, ritual protection for the dead emperor, details the nature, equipment, and organization of Qin dynasty army)
Lecture 23: Changan Capital
Rectangular grid plan (about 16 sq. miles)
Protective walls or rammed earth with moat
Palaces and markets with gates, temples, and shrines
Residential and industrial quarters
Lecture 23:The Han Empire (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) Tombs
Provide vivid look at court life
Han dynasty material is much more abundant than from earlier periods of Chinese civilization
Most from tombs
Luxury and everyday items
Lecture 23: Fall of Han and Chinese dynasties / continuity
Provincial lords were gaining power; building tax exempt status
China unified once again by later dynasties
Dynastic imperial rule in China lasted into the early 20th century
Lecture 23: Beijing - Forbidden City
Recognized as one of world's great capitals; focus more scholarly attention than any other Chinese imperial city
Gates along axis leading to palace-city
Lecture 23: Emperor Puyi, "The Last Emperor"
Last Emperor of Qing Dynasty, 1908 - 1911
Lecture 24: Inka Empire -- some background
Capital at Cuzco, ~3300 m.a.s.l. (~10,800 ft)
1532: empire covered 1000s of kilometers (highlands, eastern jungle, coastal desert)
Population estimates: 6 - 32 million.
AD 1440 - 1532
Lecture 24: Cuzco: Imperial Capital
Seat of royal Inkas and main religious and political area
Surrounding residential districts, population estimates: 15,000 to about 50,000
Lecture 24: Sacsayhuaman
Architectural complex built by Inca
Religious-military construction on hill north of Cuzco
Lecture 24: Korikancha
One of most venerated shrines
Lecture 24: Tawantinsuyo and the Inca territorial state
Lad of four quarters
Made up of subjects from all over empire
Lecture 24: Agricultural innovation
Lecture 24: Diversification of Labor (specialization)
ceramics, stoneworking, engineering, administration, metalworking, weaving, recordkeeping
Lecture 24: Taxes and the Inca government
Tax obligations (in labor) ensured by hierarchically organized administration
Lecture 24: Quipu
Records kept on knotted cords called 'quipu'
Lecture 24: Ushnu
Central Platform, elevated stepped platform with facade built of dressed stone
Lecture 24: Stoneworking
Inca stonework still stands in streets of Cuzco
Lecture 24: Kanchas
Series of great compounds
Lecture 24: Huanuco Pampa, Tambo Colorado
Coastal Inca site with adobe architecture trapezoidal doors, niches, windows
Lecture 25: Acquired behaviors vs. other characteristics (genes & environment)
In humans, most behavioral patters are culturally learned or acquired.
Other characteristics are determined by an interaction between genes and environment.
Lecture 25: Race
"one of the greatest divisions of mankind with certain inherited physical characteristics in common (such as color of skin and hair, shape of eyes and nose). (1980)
"each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics." (2005)
Lecture 25: Earnest Hooten
Deep division among humans
Early 20th Century Physical Anthropologist
Hooton suggested recent mixing has blurred deep divisions.
Lecture 25: Genetic Drift, mutation, variation between vs. within continental regions
Chance: (Genetic drift, mutation)
Only ~3% of human genetic variation exists between continental regions
Most genetic variation exists within continental regions
Most genetic variation is in Africa
Lecture 25: Modern Human Variation and Natural Selection (Example: skin color)
Darker skin (high melanin): protects inner layers of skin from ultraviolet rays
Lighter skin: helps absorb ultraviolet rays to stimulate Vitamin D production
Both are adaptive
Selective mating, as well as geographic location, plays a part in skin color distribution
Lecture 25: Clines
Gradual genetic or phenotypic differences across populations or a geographic area. Gradual change in allele frequency across time or space.
Lecture 25: Racism
Racism is a social problem where individuals react on the basis of social stereotypes (constructed categories)
Behavioral characteristics attributed to "race" can be explained with culture rather than biology.
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