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APUSH Chapter 7 Vocab
Terms in this set (15)
Date: The date is around the 1790s. This is during the time of Washington's presidency.
Definition: The Assumption was part of Hamilton's economic theory that stated the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts
Importance: Assumption was a source of conflict and suspicion amongst Americans as it was believed it was a way for Hamilton to increase power and wealth among his friends. Many also believed it would destroy good transactions of land, but nonetheless the assumption was passed.
Bank of the United States
Date: The date is 1791. This is during the time of Washington's presidency.
Definition: National bank proposed by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. It served as a central depository for the U.S. government and had the authority to issue currency.
Importance: The Bank of the United States was argued to be necessary due to the fact it would help regulate the complex commercial transactions. It was feared that this bank overstepped constitutional boundaries and would open the doors to future leaders to do the same.
"implied" (Implied Powers)
Date: The date is in the 1790s. This is during the time of the debate over Hamilton's national bank.
Definition: The "implied" powers of the Constitution were certain powers that Hamilton found and made an interpretation on. He then used these "implied" powers to back up his reasoning and constitutionality of the Bank.
Importance: The "implied" powers Hamilton found sparked fear and hostility among the public about the decay of public virtue. They would eventually lead to the development of political parties as a split in the public eye began to become clear.
Date: The date is 1793-1799. This is during the time the new republic was faced with foreign affairs and relations with other countries.
Definition: A social and political revolution in France that toppled the monarchy. The goal of the revolution was to liberate all of Europe from feudal institutions and was based off of the American revolution. **Reign of terror
Importance: The French Revolution split Americans in support for republicanism and opposition for French expansion and political excess. America was also torn between neutrality and getting involved in war between the British and French, both of which would have benefits and consequences.
Date: The date is 1794. This is during the time of the French Revolution.
Definition: Controversial treaty with Britain negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay to settle American grievances and avert war. Though the British agreed to surrender forts on U.S. territory, the treaty failed to realize key diplomatic goals and provoked a storm of protest in America.
Importance: Jay's Treaty had favorable intentions for America at first, but soon appeared to have betrayed national interest and rights, but the main goal was to stay out of war. While trying to negotiate peace, the British completely rejected the neutral rights Americans believed they had in trade, which caused an outcry in the United States.
Date: The date is 1794. This is during the time of political tension amongst political parties.
Definition: Protests by western Pennsylvania farmers resisting payment of a federal tax on whiskey. The resistance was forcibly suppressed by President George Washington gathered an army of 15,000 troops to the area.
Importance: The Republicans were blamed for the Whiskey Rebellion for promoting civil unrest to overthrow the government authority. The Whiskey Rebellion sparked much fear amongst the people about a secret plan to destroy the newly formed republic.
Date: The date is 1797. This is during the time of John Adam's presidency.
Definition: A diplomatic incident in which American peace commissioners sent to France by President John Adams were insulted with bribe demands from their French counterparts. They were known as X, Y, and Z, and the incident heightened war fever against France.
Importance: The XYZ Affair shattered Federalist and Republican relationships in America and created a much divided country. Soon, Federalists were calling to create an army to quiet internal opposition on the XYZ Affair and crush political dissent.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Date: The date is 1798. This is immediately following the XYZ Affair.
Definition: Collective name given to four laws designed to suppress criticism of the federal government and to curb liberties of foreigners living in the United States. It was also used to silence the Republican party out of fear.
Importance: The Alien and Sedition Acts was a direct act of political repression and created the nation's first crisis over civil liberties. The president was given extreme powers in wartime and foreign affairs and it defined criticism of the government as a criminal libel that was punishable.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Date: The date is around 1798. This is during the crisis of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Definition: Statements penned by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to mobilize opposition of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which they argued were unconstitutional. The Kentucky Resolution (Jefferson) suggested that states should have the right to void congressional acts that they deemed unconstitutional while the Virginia Resolution (Madison) was a much more temperate resolution, which was widely rejected in defense of state's rights.
Importance: The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were purely political propaganda for the Republican party. They simply wanted to promote that an alternate to the Federalists existed, but received little to no support.
Democratic Republicans (AP)
Date: The Democratic Republicans came about in the 1780s. This is during the time of Washington and Adams presidency.
Definition: Led by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic Republicans believed people should have political power and also favored strong state governments. This also included strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French revolution, and opposed the National Bank.
Importance: Democratic Republicans are important because they are the alternate to the Federalists. They kept a strict form of republicanism present in our country and did their best to protect the people from the government.
National Identity (AP)
Date: National identity has been around since the first nations of people. During this time, national identity is an important concept for Americans around the eighteenth century.
Definition: National identity is the sense of a nation as a connected whole. This is brought about by unique traditions, culture, and language.
Importance: National identity played a major role in American relations with foreign countries as well as national pride. National identity and nationalism are closely tied together and both can be potentially dangerous if taken out of context.
Political Parties (AP)
Date: Political parties have been around in America since the eighteenth century. This particular time is during the presidency of Washington and Adams.
Definition: Political parties are organized groups of people who have similar political aims and opinions. They seek to influence public policy by having their representated candidates elected to office.
Importance: The political parties at this time were the Republicans and the Federalists who played a major role in elections and influence on different policies. However, these parties also caused conflict and were constantly pitted against each other and eventually formed bad relations.
Regional Identity (AP)
Date: Regional identity is a concept that had been around for a long time. During this time, regional identity is important during the presidency of Washington and Adams.
Definition: Regional identity is the notion that part of a person's identity is rooted not only in the country but also in the region in which they live. This can be brought about by certain culture and traditions as well as ethnic background.
Importance: Regional identity is important because it brings a small group of people together and forms similar beliefs in an area of the country. This can play a major role in presidential elections with the development of the electoral college.
Date: The date is 1787. This is during the time of the development of the Constitution.
Definition: The Federalists were supporters of the Constitution who advocated its ratification. Led by wealthy men such as Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, the Federalists were greatly opposed to anarchy.
Importance: Federalists had an overwhelming advantage to gaining supporters of the Constitution and helping it get ratified. They used prominent figureheads to spread their opinions and always had the upper head in Constitution discussions, and their motivation to get the Constitution ratified played a huge role in its evident ratification.
Republican Motherhood (AP)
Date: Republican motherhood is a concept that revolves around the American Revolution. After the American Revolution, there was a strong push to raise children in the ideals of republicanism.
Definition: Republican motherhood is the belief that mothers were responsible for raising their children to practice the principles of republicanism. It also was a change in the role for women in American history as not merely domestic responsibilities but passing on morals.
Importance: Republican motherhood is important because it forever changed the role of women in the American society and helped gain more rights and independence for women. It also helped raise children on the beliefs America was founded on and ideally making them perfect citizens.
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