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Chemistry Final - Semester 1
Chemistry final for the first semester. (2012)
Terms in this set (73)
the study of matter, and the changes it undergoes
the study of only pure theory of chemistry, e.g. Organic Chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Physical chemistry etc.
The capacity to do work or transfer heat.
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
the characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured
A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.
A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.
A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.
The short name for an element. Iron : Fe, Potassium : K
change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.
a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction
change in which one or more new substances are formed.
way of writing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form
the quality of nearness to the truth or the true value
the exactness of a measurement
the valid digits in a measurement
a unit of measure (ex: grams,
measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.
Mass per unit Volume: D=MV
theory requiring proof
positive subatomic particle (p+)
the particles smaller than an atom
discovered the neutron
discovered the electron
the building block of all matter
Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses; atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
neutrally charged subatomic particle
the number associated with each row on the periodic table
Bohr model of atom
depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus
Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.
A wave of energy having a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum and propagated as a periodic disturbance of the electromagnetic field when an electric charge oscillates or accelerates.
High energy electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation of high energy and very short wavelength
atomic emission spectrum
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom's electrons making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
Outermost electrons of atoms; usually those involved in bonding.
full name Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley. He determined the atomic numbers of elements from their X-ray spectra, demonstrated that an element's chemical properties are determined by this number, and showed that there are only 92 naturally occurring elements.
father of modern chemistry
father of the modern atomic theory. He defined an atom as the smallest part of a substance that could participate in a chemical reaction and argued that elements are composed of atoms. He produced the first table of comparative atomic weights.
full name Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev. He developed the periodic table.
any of the set of metallic elements occupying a central block in the periodic table, e.g., iron, manganese, chromium, and copper
a positively charged ion
a negatively charged ion
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
an element of the periodic Group 0; also called rare gases; formerly called inert gases, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
an ionic compound is a chemical compound in which ions are held together in a lattice structure by ionic bonds
an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds
coordinate covalent bond
a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom
type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions
the chemical bond that involves the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms
Metallic bonding constitutes the electrostatic attractive forces between the delocalized electrons, called conduction electrons, gathered in an electron cloud, and the positively charged metal ions
weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
charged species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded
a formula giving the number of atoms of each of the elements present in one molecule of a specific compound
Refers to the species present in a substance
molecules composed only of two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements
6.02 * 10^23; the number of atoms or molecules in one mole of any substance at STP
the SI unit of amount of substance, equal to the quantity containing as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12
standard temperature and pressure
The mass percent of each element in a compound.
the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table
It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.
double covalent bond
a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two
a conserved property of certain subatomic particles that determines their electromagnetic interaction
unshared pairs of electron
a pair of valence electrons of opposite spin that are not shared between the atoms in a molecule and are responsible for the formation of coordinate bonds
Group A elements
columns (in order): 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A
Group B elements
columns (in order): 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B, 8B, 1B, 2B
stable electron configuration
an electron configuration similar to that of a noble gas
determine the formula
Ex: Ca + Cl = CaCl2
the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms
All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers
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