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sociology chapter 13
Terms in this set (25)
evaluation of freedom—measures political rights and civil liberties
Voter ID laws
developed to target voter fraud, however, voter fraud remains an incredibly rare phenomenon in the United States.
a nation (people with a common identity), and a state (the political apparatus or government that rules) with power over a population who are citizens within a given territory.
How do nation-states rule?
Citizens allowed to participate in the election of its leaders and policies.
Elections are open to the public.
Most common political system in the modern world.
Political participation limited or denied.
Power is concentrated in the hands of a small group or single individual.
Some societal institutions are free of state control.
No political participation.
Rights heavily restricted.
Majority of societal institutions monitored and shaped by the state.
: a political system that allows the citizens to participate in political decision making or to elect representatives to government bodies.
Elements of a democratic political system
Universal adult suffrage
Competitive and open elections
More than 1 political party
Alternative sources of information
the undisputed political rule of a state over a given territorial area by a government.
members of a political community, who have both rights and duties associated with that membership. 3 types of rights (T. H. Marshall):
Civil rights: legal rights held by all citizens in a given national community.
Political rights: rights of political participation, such as the right to vote in local and national elections, held by citizens of a national community.
Social rights: rights of social and welfare provisions held by all citizens in a national community.
The welfare state
Examples of benefits provided by the welfare state:
State colleges and universities
a set of beliefs, symbols, and emotional ties providing a sense of membership and belonging to a single political community with a shared destiny.
Because citizenship to a particular nation is a main source for identity within the modern world, nationalism, racism, and xenophobia go hand in hand.
the ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold, even in the face of resistance.
Steven Lukes. The 3 dimensions of power.
Decision making process
Agenda setting process
Manipulating the views of others
processes of political change involving the mobilizing of a mass social movement, which by the use of violence, successfully overthrows an existing regime and forms a new government.
collective attempts by large groups of people who seek to accomplish, or to block, a process of social change.
a theory of the limits of democracy, which holds that in large-scale societies democratic participation is necessarily limited to the regular election of political leaders.
theories that emphasize the role of diverse and potentially competing interest groups, none of which dominates the political process.
The Power Elite
small networks of individuals who hold concentrated power in modern societies.
Who are the Power Elite?
The federal government
an organization of individuals with broadly similar political aims, oriented toward achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral process.
A group organized to pursue specific interests in the political arena, operating primarily by lobbying the members of legislative bodies.
a theory that modern states face major difficulties as a result of being overburdened with complex administrative decisions.
the failure of a political order to generate a sufficient level of commitment and involvement on the part of its citizens to be able to govern properly.
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