Who: Philip Deloria, Native historian
What: "Expectation and Anomaly" from is an idea developed by Philip Deloria in his book Indians in Unexpected Places, published in 2004
- the dominant expectation in white American society was that Indians neither lived in civilized society nor otherwise participated in modern political, economic, technological, or cultural movements
- if an Indian did successfully assimilate into American society, he or she was seen as an anomaly (not as unexpected), which reinforces expectations
- "I would like for you to think of expectations in terms of the colonial and imperial relationship of power and domination existing between Indian people and the United States"
- "You might see in expectation in the ways in which popular culture works to produce—and sometimes compromise—racism and misogyny"
- "And I would...like you to distinguish between the anomalous, which reinforces expectations, and the unexpected, which resists categorization and, thereby questions expectations itself"
- cultural expectations are significant because they are the product of imperial power and domination existing between the Indian people and the United States, and they also work to produce racism and misogyny in popular culture
- distinguishing between the anomalous and the unexpected resists categorization and therefore questions expectation itself
What: binaries of authenticity were ideas perpetuated by White society that fashioned a powerful "either-or" notion of Indian authenticity that relied on a wide array of associated binaries including "civilized-uncivilized," "subordinate-dominant," "nature-society," "traditional-modern," "rural-urban," "irrational-rational," and "colonized-colonizer."
- Rural, past, nature
- Irrational, warlike, savage
- Subordinate, subsistent
- Pagan, traditional
- Colonized, uncivilized
- Dynamic, adaptive
- Modern, urban
- Christian, capitalist
Where: throughout colonial America
When: late 19th and early 20th century
Why: create the concept that Native people could only be on one side of associated binaries that practically separated Whites/Indians and made it seem unreasonable to try to find middle ground in between these binaries
- Indian authenticity was determined by comparing characteristics of Indians to characteristics of White people and saying that there was no way to be both, and by displaying any characteristic of an Indian would be inauthentic (damned if you do, damned if you don't)
Who: established by the "talented 10th" of Native Americans including figures like Carlos Montezuma, Charles Eastman, and Zitkala Sa
What: The Society of American Indians was the first national American Indian rights organization run by and for American Indians
- membership of over 600 individuals
- pioneered pan-Indianism (promoting unity among American Indians regardless of tribal affiliation)
- held annual meetings to discuss Indian issues, give reports, and talk about "the language of the larger world"
- Questioned conventional wisdom regarding Indians as racially inferior
- published a 'Quarterly Journal' of American Indian lit.
Where: headquarters in Washington, D.C.
When: est. 1911 in Columbus Ohio
Why: demonstrates the unification of the younger, Native generation in an attempt to advocate for the rights of Native peoples
- promoted a new generation of American Indian leaders known as Red Progressives, which were prominent professionals from the fields of medicine, nursing, law, government, education, anthropology and ministry; they believed in the inevitability of progress through education and governmental action
Who: Robert Burnette, Brule Sioux writer
What: In his essay "A Blueprint for Elected Tyranny", Burnette clearly and firmly asserts that while the IRA may seem like a good program, it is simply another instance of the government trying to control Native sovereignty and impose assimilationist ideals upon Native peoples
- Burnette believes that Native peoples have been doing just fine utilizing tribal councils and governments to regulate their communities; "on their own, the Indian peoples had developed the checks and balances that were needed to keep a brake on ambition"
- The IRA would not restore these forms of management, but would rather set up a system where Native peoples would elect tribal councilmen that were essentially beneath White officials, such as the "reservation superintendent", similar to the reservation agent, and a "Commissioner of Indian Affairs", who would directly represent the federal interests of the Secretary of Interior
- Furthermore, the ways in which tribal councilmen were elected were inconsistent and those in power were often unrepresentative of the actual tribal population
Where: from Rosebud Reservation
Why: Burnette believed that the IRA's "tribal self-government was a charade", only serving as a frontage to mask the intentions of the Department of the Interior against the best interests of Native peoples
Who: Eisenhower administration
What: termination was the U.S. government's attempt at speeding assimilation efforts by severing its ties with tribal nations, specifically by ceasing federal aid to reservations and further liquefying communal land holdings
- through a 3-step plan involving compensation, termination, and relocation, proponents of this plan believed that Native peoples would be freed from the backwards Indian ways of the reservation and embrace the urban, capitalist lifestyles of White Americans
- to these termination supporters, "freedom" for Native peoples meant the absorption of indigenous Americans into mainstream American society, where their concerns over land, culture, and Native rights would ideally disappear into the masses
- Congress set about ending the special relationship between tribes and the federal government; the intention was to grant Native Americans all the rights and privileges of citizenship, reduce their dependence on a bureaucracy whose mismanagement had been documented, and eliminate the expense of providing services for native people
Why: the policy was trying to erase the existence of Indians by forcing them to integrate into the white society
- this policy was a failure; there were no jobs or placements for the Native Americans
- they provided little or no assistance for them; the living qualities were inadequate, leading them to live in poverty conditions
- many of the Native Americans eventually returned to the reservations
Who: Native american (Lakota) activist, author, and historian
What: wrote the book "Custer Died For Your Sins"; we read the chapter "The Red and the Black"
- White societies chose to push Black people from their communities through exclusion and segregation, while Native peoples were forced into White societies through assimilation policies, allotment, and termination
- also discusses the fact that Black issues have largely overshadowed Native issues due to the larger Black population in America; because of this, civil rights for Native peoples took a back seat during the movements of the 1960's
- believes that the place and purpose for Native peoples in White American has been carved out in relation to the existence of other racial groups, instead of deliberately with Native needs and objectives in mind
- lack of communication and equal recognition between Whites, Blacks, and Native peoples creates misunderstandings in which Native nationalism, culture, and community is largely ignored.
When: published book in 1969
Who: Native American activists groups, such as AIM and NIYC
What: core facets of the Indian Rights Movements detailing demands of the American peoples, delivered to Nixon at the end of the "Trail of Broken Treaties"
- points 1-9 addressed treaty rights, including the restoration of treaty making between a treaty commission and sovereign Native nations, and the right of Native peoples to interpret treaties
- points 10-20 addressed land, law, and admission; this included restoring 110 million acres of land to Native peoples, restoring terminated rights, repealing state jurisdiction, and the development of a new office of federal Indian relations
- protect religious freedom and cultural integrity
- health, housing, employment, economic development, education
Where: Washington, D.C.
Why: specific demands of Native people; details needs, rights, and means of action
Who: NIYC, Nisqually and Puyallup
What: after WWII, Nisqually and Puyallup peoples began to realize that pollution, logging, and the increasing population were negatively affecting the salmon runs; they began to fish in "ceded territories"
- during the 1800s, numerous regional tribes ceded quantities of land to the federal government and moved to reservations, but their treaties protected traditional fishing and hunting, both in terms of access to territories and in the means used
- Nisqually and Puyallups begin to be arrested for fishing in these areas
- NIYC-planned protest occurred in Olympia, Washington. Somewhere between 1,500 and 5,000 people attended, making it the largest intertribal protest to date; traditional dances were performed on the steps of the state capitol, organizers gave speeches, and in front of the governor's mansion, one group held a war dance
- in 1974, the United States Supreme Court closed United States v. Washington and mandated that the treaty Indians had the right to catch 50% of Washington's harvestable fish; had "reserved rights in usual and accustomed places"
Where: Olympia, Washington
When: 1964 (but had been occurring since the 50's)
Why: ready to accept jail or punishment for this act; attracts public attention to the issue
- "Reserved Rights": tribes had relinquished claim to some land but still had rights to hunt and fish; state laws were now limiting that right
- attracting national attention
- organized protests