Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Ch5 Vocabulary List (Digestive System)
p152-p154, The Language of Medicine
Terms in this set (46)
Passage of materials through the walls of the small intentine into the blood stream.
Small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested.
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]).
It literally means hanging (pend/o) on to (ap-, which is a form of ad-).
Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules.
Pigment released by the liver in the bill.
Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
The first part of the large intestine.
Large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum.
Common bile duct
Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.
Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus.
The primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
First part of the small intestine. Duo=2, den=10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long.
Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces.
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that and in -ase.
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso- means inwards; phag/o means swallowing.
Substances produced when fats are digested.
Solid wastes; stool.
Small sac under the liver; stores bile.
Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
Substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
Third part of the small intestine; from the Greek eilos, meaning twisted. when the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of obstruction.
One of four teeth in the dental arch.
Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.
Second part of the small intestine. The Latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death.
Pancreas enzyme necessary to digest fats.
A large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weighs about 2.5 to 3 pounds.
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter.
The sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars.
Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.
Organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).
Papillae (singular: papilla)
Small elevations on the tongue. A papilla is a nipple-like elevation.
Salivary gland within the cheek. Just anterior to the ear.
Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, peristalsis moves the contents through at different rates: stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon 6 to 72 hours. Peri- means surrounding; -stalsis is constriction.
Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
Enzyme that digests protein.
Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
Recommended textbook explanations
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, Student Edition
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Laboratory Manual for Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Terry R. Martin
Sets found in the same folder
The Language Of Medicine, Chapter 10 Vocab & Combi…
Language of Medicine Chapter 15 Pronunciation of T…
Cranial Bones/Facial Bones
Medical Terminology Chapter 5 Digestive System
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 5 Vocabulary
LOM Chapter 5/6 Vocabulary
Other sets by this creator
Combining forms CH4
Suffixes CH3 (Noun+Adj)