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the great compromise

established a legislature with equal state representation in the senate and representation by state population in the house

under the 3/5ths compromise

each slave would count as three-fifths of a person for purposes of representation.

the powers of the president include all off the following except

he can declare war

article III of the constitution

creates the Supreme Court but allows Congress to establish lower courts.

the 'necessary and proper clause'

is used by Congress to justify the exercise of powers not mentioned in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution.

block grants

Federal funds provided to states for a broad purpose and unrestricted by detailed requirements are called

sam Houston was elected president

Which of the following events followed the forming of the Republic of Texas?

the issue of slavery

The question of whether the United States should annex Texas, was heavily influenced by

the size of the state makes it difficult to create political organizations and gives an advantage to those who can "stand out."

Texas has a history of electing "colorful" governors such as "Pa" Ferguson and "Pappy" O'Daniel because

it led to the writing of a constitution that is still in use in Texas today.

The rise of the Grange and the Redeemers was important because


The job of confirming presidential appointments belongs to the


The reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census, is known as

the house ways and means committee

Which of the following is the extremely powerful congressional committee that determines when debate on a bill will take place


The process of redrawing congressional districts to match population shifts in states with more than one representative is called

a conference committee is formed to bridge the gap between the bills

When different versions of the same bill pass in the House and the Senate,

slow and deliberate

The founders created the congressional decision making process to be

within congressional standing committees

Most of the hard work of considering legislative alternatives and drafting legislation occurs

serve on committee that deal with constituent issues

It is important for a member of Congress to


Redrawing congressional district boundaries to favor a particular group or party is known as

die by inaction at the committee stage

Most bills introduced in Congress

the governor may call special sessions of the legislature

Which of the following is a basic characteristic of Texas Legislature?

hybrid of citizen and professional legislature

The author discusses typologies of state legislatures. Which type describes Texas?

the party caucuses are important organizations for structuring votes in the legislature

All of the following statements concerning organization in the Texas Legislature are true except

the legislature is less likely to manage the state budget, handle new issues, and review actions of the executive.

The significance of the length and frequency of legislative sessions of the Texas Legislature is

legislators often work in professions or industries that have a vested interest in state policy.

A major consequence of the low pay and part-time nature of legislative life in Texas is that

one person, one vote

The drawing of district boundaries for legislative districts in the Texas Legislature must follow the rule of


The description of the redistricting process in Texas for the Texas Legislature and for the U.S. House of Representatives leads to the conclusion that the process is

the use of ghost votes and closed riders.

If you attended a session of the Texas Legislature while floor votes were being taken, you might be mislead as to what is happening by

the problem created for the Texas Senate by the requirement of two-thirds majority to pass most bills.

The story of the "killer bees" illustrates

most heavily concentrated in the offices of Speaker of the House and President of the Senate.

Power in the Texas Legislature is

rise of public expectations of the president

The _________ is dated from the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors.

The official constitutional grounds for presidential impeachment are

appointees heading each major department in the executive branch.

the president's cabinet is composed of the

they have gone to war when public opinion backed them.

Presidents have been able to ignore the restrictions on their ability to go to war contained in the War Powers Act because

two-thirds approval from the Senate.

In the United States, treaties are negotiated by the president and require

Presidents have had the line item veto since 1995.

All of the following statements concerning the president's veto power are true EXCEPT

experience predictable shifts in their popularity over the course of their presidency.

The cycle effect refers to the tendency for presidents to

the popularity of the first lady.

The president's public approval rating tends to be affected by all of the following EXCEPT

head of government; head of state.

Presidents must play the role as _____ in order to solve problems, but that requires them to behave in ways that conflict with their role as __________.

insulate the president from the masses.

According to the textbook, the framers adopted the Electoral College as a way to

four-year term with no limit on terms served

Which of the following describe the terms of service for office of governor?

having to have served in the military.

All of the following statements concerning the constitutional requirements for serving as Governor of Texas are true except

relatively weak compared with other governors.

The budget power of the governor of Texas is

secretary of state.

The governor's most significant appointment is the

lieutenant governor

The __________ is often considered the most powerful position in Texas.

full disclosure of all campaign contributions made to candidates for public office.

Sunshine laws in Texas require all of the following except

determine the length of special legislative sessions.

In Texas the governor can do all of the following except

nothing—the Constitution is silent on the grounds for impeachment

The Texas Constitution lists _________ as grounds for impeachment of the governor.

his role as president of the Senate.

The major source of the lieutenant governor's power is

any gubernatorial appointee have the approval of their own state senator.

Senatorial courtesy requires that

neutral competence

The ultimate purpose of depoliticizing government bureaucracies is to create


The practice in which successful party candidates reward supporters with jobs or favors is known as

Social Security.

The single largest program of the civilian federal bureaucracy today is

the president's cabinet.

The fifteen departments that make up the major subdivisions of the federal government also represent

Bureaucratic discretion

_________ refers to bureaucrats' authority to use their own judgment in interpreting and carrying out the laws of Congress.

publish the proposed regulations in the Federal Register and hold hearings on them.

Before it can implement new regulations, a regulatory agency must

through the close scrutiny given to specific agencies by specific congressional subcommittees.

Congress exercises control over the bureaucracy

phenomenon of members of interest groups, congressional committees, and bureaucratic agencies cooperating for mutual benefit.

The term "iron triangles" refers to the

the Kenneth Meier Act.

All of the following are designed to enhance citizen influence over the bureaucracy EXCEPT

because Congress often passes very general laws that require clarification before they can be enforced.

The bureaucracy engages in the lawmaking process

flexible goals.

Bureaucracy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

clientele groups.

Groups of citizens whose interests are affected by an agency and who work to influence its policies are called

a firm commitment to using plain, easy-to-understand language.

The bureaucratic culture includes all of the following EXCEPT


The primary source of power for a member of the bureaucracy is

make decisions with accountability and fairness but also with a lot of red tape.

Because bureaucracies are so rule based, they

wasteful and inefficient policy decisions.

The desire by agencies to maintain total control over their own resources and policy decisions, rather than cooperating with other agencies, can lead to

policymaking process to the public.

The primary effect of sunshine laws has been to open the

most private bureaucracies have the explicit goal of making money, so accountability is straightforward.

The fundamental difference between most private bureaucracies and public bureaucracies is that

subject key policy decisions to the consideration of the general public.

Citizen advisory councils are established to

create standardization and predictability.

The value of explicit rules in bureaucratic institutions is that they

are not clearly spelled out.

The powers of the Supreme Court listed in the Constitution


The power of the courts to determine the constitutionality of laws is called judicial

rotating panels of three judges.

Decisions of the U.S. Circuit Courts are made by

by contributing to the campaigns of congressional allies

The Supreme Court is deeply involved in politics in each of the following ways EXCEPT

a petition by the losing side in a lower court for the Supreme Court to hear an appeal.

A writ of certiorari is


A law that makes it illegal to use steroids is an example of _____ law.

The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Which of the following is not a statutory law?

gives some power to the minority on the Court.

The Rule of Four is significant to the balance of power among Supreme Court justices because it

they may influence whether the Supreme Court decides to hear a case.

Amicus curiae briefs are significant because

conservatives have argued that judges are acting as legislators on issues such as same-sex marriage.

Judicial activism has become an important political issue because


All judges in Texas are

is the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals

Texas' highest appellate court level

District Courts have original criminal jurisdiction in all felony cases

Which of the following are characteristics of District Courts in Texas?

sphere of authority

A court's jurisdiction defines that court's

shared between levels of government

Judicial federalism describes a system in which judicial authority is ______.

the defendant

The party alleged to have committed the wrong at issue in a suit is called ______.

the plaintiff

The party claiming to have been wronged and bringing a suit is called ______.

monetary awards to the injured party

Compensatory damages relate to

monetary awards to the injured party

Punitive damages relate to each of the following except ________.

Local trial courts in Texas handle cases involving not more than $5,000

Which of the following are characteristics of local trial courts in Texas?

political efficacy.

Citizens' feelings of effectiveness in political affairs is called

Motor Voter bills

What method has increased voter registration?

party identification.

The single biggest factor accounting for how people decide to vote is


_______ voting occurs when people use their judgment of the current political situation along with the past performance of the incumbents.

local party members who choose delegates for the national convention.

A party caucus is a meeting of

Party rules

_______ determine(s) how delegates are distributed by the primaries.

in primary elections and caucuses.

Delegates to the national conventions are chosen

the opinion poll spike that most candidates enjoy immediately after the convention.

The term "convention bump" refers to

vote their conscience rather than for the candidate they were pledged to support in the Electoral College.

Faithless electors, as defined by the text, are electors who

on which most voters and candidates share the same position.

A valence issue is an issue

In Texas, citizens must register to vote at least thirty days before an election.

Which of the accurately describe voter registration requirements?

political intimidation

Which of the following barriers to voting were primarily used against Hispanics in Texas?

is financially costly but perceived as a necessary investment

Electronic voting in Texas ________.

the election contest excludes supporters of other political parties

In a closed primary election _________.

the literacy test

The barrier to voting least used in Texas was

Early voting is permitted without giving a specific reason since 1998.

Which of the following statements describe early voting in Texas?

Through appointment by the governor

Which of the following are not ways of getting one's name on the ballot in Texas?

To young voters in lowering the voting age to eighteen

Texas extended voting rights to which of the following groups even before federal laws were passed?


The candidate who already holds the office up for election is called the ______.

voters do not have to declare party affiliation to participate

In an open primary election


The party _______ are the members of a political party who consistently vote for that party's candidates.

party activists


a dangerous version of factions.

According to James Madison, political parties were

substantial and long-term shift in party allegiance by individuals and groups, usually resulting in a change in policy direction.

Realignment refers to a

the fundraising arm for interest groups.

Political action committees, or PACs, are

free rider problem

Many interest groups face the _______ when recruiting members who can gain the benefits of their activities whether or not they join.

give more power to citizens and enhance democratic life.

Pluralists believe that interest groups

some of the most effective lobbyists are former government officials.

The "revolving door" exists because

to build cohesion between the state party and the directives of the national party

Which of the following is not a function of political parties?

Democratic Party support has dominated election results for most of the state's history

Which of the following accurately describe the development of political parties in Texas?


A federal program that guarantees benefits to qualified recipients is a(n) _____ program.


A ______ is a financial incentive given by the government to corporations, individuals, or other governments.

Social Security.

3. Question :
The largest federal program, in dollars spent, is

the government's use of taxing and spending powers to regulate the economy.

Fiscal policy refers to


The use of interest rates to control the money supply in order to regulate the economy is known as _______ policy.


A tax system in which all people pay the same percentage of their income is a(n) ______ tax.


______ is the imposition of trade barriers, especially tariffs, to make trading conditions favorable to domestic producers.


The current income tax in the United States is an example of a(n) ________ tax.

National Security Council.

The president's inner circle of foreign policy advisers that includes such people as the secretaries of state and defense and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the

the power to declare war rests with Congress alone.

Concerning declarations of war,

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