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Biology 101 Review
Terms in this set (153)
What type of cell is this?
What type of cell is this?
X) cell wall
Which of the following is NOT a structure found in human cells:
X) cell wall
What is the basic unit of life?
In what organelle of a plant cell does photosynthesis occur?
Which of the following is the most common source of energy
for brain cells in humans:
W) nucleic acids
It is generally believed that most of the oxygen in the air on Earth today came from what general biological process:
What is the most common term for the biological polymer found in chromosomes that stores genetic information?
The spontaneous movement of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane in order to create equilibrium.
Tiniest part of all living and non-living things. (building block of matter)
Small part of all living things.
Many cells working together.
Made of thousands of cells (formed into tissues), connected by several body systems to do work to keep our bodies healthy & alive.
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
main function of chloroplasts is to produce food (glucose)
Chloroplasts contain the pigment, chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most of the colors in the color spectrum, and reflects only green and yellow wavelengths of light. This is why we see leaves as green or yellow - because these colors are reflected into our eyes.
another name for sugar C6H12O6
three things used for making glucose are sunlight water and carbon dioxide
used for energy and growth
The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Reproduction that requires two organisms
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring.
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
A rule of nature
Living creatures such as bacteria, most protists, and some fungi that are too small to see with the naked eye.
A cell that has no nucleus or distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
A cell with a nucleus distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
An organism that causes disease.
An organism that feeds on dead matter.
An organism that feeds on a living host.
An organism that requires oxygen.
An organism that does not require oxygen.
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.
The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers that helps the organism survive harsh conditions..
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum.
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane.
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating.
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa.
Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae.
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself.
Digestion that takes place outside of the cell.
The part of the fungus responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food.
A filament of fungal cells.
Specialized aerial hypha that produces spores.
An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments.
A hypha of a parasitic fungus that enters the host's cells, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.
The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring.
A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms.
The basic building blocks of matter.
A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process.
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous.
The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones.
A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.
Lacking any affinity to water.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules.
The transport of dissolved substances into cells.
The breakdown of absorbed substances.
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy.
The removal of soluble waste materials.
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.
The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.
The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA.
Those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices.
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein of a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait.
The RNA that performs transcription.
A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA.
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells.
The time interval between cellular reproduction.
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.
The region that joins two sister chromatids.
The figure produced when the chomosomes of species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Diploid number (2n)
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Haploid number (n)
the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.
The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n).
Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.
Deoxyriboneucleic acid found mainly in the nucleus
double the chromosomes
neuclic acid base pairs
receives instructions from DNA
process of forming a neucleic acid using a template
uses the codons in mRNA to make a specific amino acid
monomers of amino acid chains
body cell reproduction and sex cell reproduction
2 parents male and female
segment of dna that codes for a specific trait
the building blocks of protein
the complement of mRNA; triplet code on the tRNA
changes in the chromosomes where parts of the chromosomes are broken and lost during mitosis
each set of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA representing an amino acid or start/stop signal
set of rules that specify to the codons in DNA or RNA that corresponds to the amino acids in proteins
is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen. In DNA, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
any change in the DNA sequence
messenger RNA, brings information from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm
ribosomal rna, hold tightly to the mRNA and use its information to assemble amino acids
transfer RNA, a type of RNA that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized in the ribosomes.
A form of DNA produced by combining two genetic material from two or more different sources by means of genetic engineering
process of copying DNA sequence into RNA
process of converting information in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein
energy absorbing plant pigments other than chlorophyll
all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism.
*Foreign material that invades the body
*Anything that is foreign to the body and that causes an immune response
*What mobilizes the adaptive defenses and provokes an immune response?
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
a classification of blood that depends on the type of antigen present on the surface of the red blood cell; A, B, AB, or O
A disease causing agent
A protein that acts against a specific antigen
A member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms lacking organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
BACTERIA GET IN BETWEEN CELLS
Viruses can only reproduce inside host cells, and they damage the cell when they do this
VIRUSES GET INTO CELL
DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES
influenza - flu, colds, Measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, AIDS
DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA
food poisoning, Cholera, typhoid, whooping cough,
gonorrhoea - a sexually transmitted disease
SOMETHING THAT DEVIATES FROM NORMAL OR EXPECTED
WHAT YOU MEASURE- ON Y AXIS
WHAT YOU CHOOSE VALUES FOR- ON Y AXIS
VARIABLES THAT REMAIN CONSTANT OR UNCHANGED
The breakdown of dead plant and animal material by fungi, bacteria and other organisms. Requires WOW
organisms in a biological community live and interact with other organisms.
a relative measure of the hydrogen ion concentration within a solution; Latin for "probably hydrogens".
process by which cells become specialized for specific functions.
A kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients
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