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BIOL 3040 - Week 14 Flashcards
Terms in this set (37)
Explain how these fibers are extracted.
ginning - machines separate desired fibers (cotton gin)
retting - microbial degradation removes soft tissues
decortication - scraping removes unwanted tissue
Describe the origins of cotton.
Cotton was first used in 10,000 B.P. in Peru. Wild cotton was harvested and later domesticated there.
In the Old World, the origin was India.
Explain how cotton is processed.
The plant splits open, and the round ball is exposed which is what is harvested.
In the cotton gin, it goes through a roller with teeth on it (saw gin), and as it rotates the fibers pull through and the seeds fall off to the side.
Then it is cleaned
Explain why the number of slaves present in the United States increased so much between 1790 and 1860.
Because of the creation of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793, cotton was possible to be extracted very rapidly.
Led to an increase in production, increase in demand, and therefore an increased need for slaves.
Give some treatments used to finish cotton cloth.
Explain what do they do to the cloth.
-bleaching: make it white
-mercerization: sodium hydroxide to give it a luster
-permanent press: so they don't have to be ironed as often
-sizing: to add stiffness
What is flax?
It is used to produce linen. It was once very widely used, not is it not so widely used.
Describe where in the plant flax fibers are found.
The bast fibers are produced on the outside of the stems of the plants.
Describe how flax is processed to make linen.
- flax brake
What is tapa and where did it originate?
Tapa is made using bark from trees called paper mulberry.
It originated in Polynesia; they would take it with them on canoe trips.
Explain how tapa is used and prepared.
Bark is soaked after being stripped from the branches to soak the bast fibers.
Then it is beaten by a wooden mallet for awhile until it spreads out into cloth form.
Then it is bleached by the sun and patterns can be stamped on.
Know what hemp, coir, jute, and sisal are and how their fibers are used.
rope, twine, canvas
course and durable.
choir people are as dumb as doormats
grown primarily in Bangladesh/ India. Course fiber
Agave native to Central America. Strong fiber
string, rope, floor-mats
Sisal is from Central America
Is it likely that hemp products such as rope would be used as a drug? Why?
It is low in THC (the psychoactive compound). The hemp plant are very low in this particular compound.
Describe the differences between hardwood and softwood.
Hardwood - angiosperm (Oak, Maple)
Softwood - gymnosperm (Pine, fir)
When you are soft, you need to go to the gym.
Describe how the use of wood is optimized when logs are sawn.
They are positioned carefully to optimize the productivity of the mill.
Describe how the use of wood is optimized by creating veneers and/or engineered wood products such as particle board.
When the log is turned rapidly, a very thin layer of wood is continually peeled off by a blade. This layer of wood is called a veneer.
What is a veneer and how is it used?
It can be used to make plywood. Veneer can also be laid on other pieces of veneer with grains going in different directions.
- Furniture/ paneling
Explain what papyrus is.
It is laid at 90 degree angles, smoothed and dried to make a paper surface.
It grows in moist areas.
Give the history of the use of papyrus as a writing surface.
REMEMBER THE DATE
Egyptians in 4,500 B.P. made it from a papyrus plant that grows in the Eastern Mediterranean Region through Egypt.
*That Egyptian chick who writes with papyrus is 45 years old
Explain how paper is made from wood.
In China in 2,000 B.P. it began.
- chipped (logs hauled in from the forest are chipped to make pulp)
- fibers are separated (mechanically or using chemical treatments)
- spread on a screen (Fourdrinier screen)
*think of Chinese foresters hauling the wood in
Explain what sustainable forestry is and what sorts of practices insure that forests are renewed.
Sustainable forestry is sustaining that trees are grown as much as they are harvested; a replenishing of trees.
- selective cutting: Only certain trees in the forest are removed. Allows for regeneration of the forest to happen underneath the forest.
- reforestation: Planting seedlings back onto the clear-cut soon after harvest is done.
Know some alternative plant fibers used for papermaking.
- Cotton, linen can be used to make paper
- Blue jeans can be recycled to make paper
- Bamboo is an alternate for paper-making and construction
Give some ways of using fiber that could help conserve our wood resources.
They are alternatives to using wood; alternative plants.
Cotton / linen paper
alternate fiber sources
Know what the Badianus Manuscript, Ebers Papyrus, and Pun Tsao are.
Badianus Manuscript: Knowledge of medicinal properties of native plants written by Aztec healer in 1592 gift to king of Spain.
Ebers Papyrus: Written by Egyptians about 3,500 B.P, contained herbal remedies.
Pun Tsao: Ancient Chinese record published in 1600 A.D., containing thousands of herbal cures dating from 4-5,000 years ago.
Know who Paracelsus, Dioscorides, and John Parkinson were.
Paracelsus: The Age of Herbals. Major proponent of "Doctrine of Signatures."
Dioscorides: First person to write one of these herbals- Materia Medica, described around 600 medicinal plants.
John Parkinson: Another fellow who wrote an influential herbal called Theatrum Botanicum.
Paracelsus: Doctrine of Signatures
Dioscorides: First herbal - Materia Medica "Medical Material"
John Parkinson - Theatrum Botanicum
What is the Doctrine of Signatures?
A misinformed concept - medicinal use recognized by a signature corresponding to human anatomy.
EX: Liverwort, Mandrake
The study of the relationship between plants and people.
Explain why it is important to study ethnobotany.
To study traditional knowledge before it is lost and traditional lifestyles completely disappear.
Gather information on natural ecosystems which are disappearing.
Bring new medicines into modern practice.
What kinds of academic disciplines are needed to study ethnobotany?
Give the two main groups of chemicals that medicinal plants contain.
1 - Alkaloids
2 - Glycosides
Give the roles of these two groups of chemicals in nature.
1 - Alkaloids - Effect Central Nervous System - Effect a personal psychologically or heart rate
2 - Glycosides - The compounds release hydrogen cyanide.
What are digitoxin and digoxin?
They increase the strength of the heartbeat by slowing it down.
Give the plant that digitoxin and digoxin are derived from and the disease are they used to treat.
They are derived from Foxglove and used to treat congestive heart failure (dropsy).
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