Friedland Chapter 10

Tragedy of the Commons
The tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain
A cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
The maximum amount that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource
Resource conversation ethic
States that people should maximize resource based on the greatest good for everyone
Multiple-use lands
May be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction
dry,open grasslands
dominated by trees and other woody vegetation
involves removing all, or almost all, the trees within an area
Selective cutting
Removes single trees or relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest
Ecologically sustainable forestry
has a goal of maintaining all species, both plants and animals, in a close to a natural state as possible
tree plantations
large areas typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species
prescribed burn
a fire is deliberately set under controlled conditions
national wildlife refuges
the only federal public lands managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife
national wilderness areas
set aside with the intent of preserving large tracts of intact ecosystems or landscapes
smart growth
focuses on strategies that encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities .
environmental mitigation plan
states how it will address the project's environmental impact
surround metropolitan centers and have low population densities compared with those urban areas
similar to suburban areas but are unconnected to any central city or densely populated area
urban sprawl
creation of urbanized areas that spread into rural areas and remove clear boundaries between the two
urban blight
As people move away from a city to suburbs and exurbs, the city often deteriorates, causing yet more people to leave.
highway trust fund
pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways
induced demand
an increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow
a planning tool developed in the 1920s to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods and create quieter, safer communities
multi-use zoning
allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits
Environmental impact statement (EIS)
outlines the scope and purpose of the project, describes the environmental context, suggests alternative approaches to the project, and analyzes the environmental impact
people with an interest in a particular place or issue
sense of place
the feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character
transit-oriented development (TOD)
attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, giving people convenient alternatives to driving
development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities, rather than expanding into new land outside the city
urban growth boundaries
place restrictions on development outside a designated area
eminent domain
a principle that grants government the power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it
subsidized mortgages
Financing where a home builder permits the purchaser of a new home to occupy the home for a period of time without making monthly payments