Friedland Chapter 9

Surface runoff
Also known as overland flow, the flow of water that occurs when excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flows over the earth's surface.
or Drainage Basin, an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean.
the water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations
Zone of saturation
the area in an aquifer, below the water table, in which relatively all pores and fractures are saturated with water
Water table
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates the rock or soil
Hydrologic Cycle
The movement of water through the biosphere. (groundwater, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff/infiltration)
Unconfined aquifer
an aquifer made up of porous rock covered by soil through which water can easily flow in and out of
Cone of depression
an area where there is no longer any groundwater
lakes that have low productivity due to low amounts of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen in the water (newly formed, poorly nourished, little sediment, deep water, clear water color, low net primary prod., trout, smallmouth bass)
lakes with a high level of productivity due to an excess supply of nutrients (Phosphates and nitrates)-(shallow water, murky water color, high net prod. lots of plants, fish, plankton)
intermediate-between oligotrophic and eutrophic-moderate level of productivity
an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted
Confined aquifer
an aquifer surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay, which impedes water flow to or from the aquifer
Groundwater recharge area
in a confined aquifer, an opening at the land's surface of the impermeable layer that allows water to flow in
the removal of salt from salt water-a method of obtaining fresh water by water-poor countries. Two methods are distillation or reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
a method of desalination that uses pressure to force pure water through a semipermeable membrane, leaving the salt behind
Central-pivot low-pressure sprinklers
method of crop irrigation in which equipment rotates around a pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers. 80% efficiency
Drip irrigation system
uses a slowly dripping hose that is either laid on the ground or buried beneath the soil. 95% efficiency. added benefit of reducing weed growth because the surface soil remains dry, which discourages weed germination.
Gravity-flow irrigation
60%-80% efficiency with surge valves, the water usually comes from an aqueduct system or a nearby river.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream. Riparian is also the proper nomenclature for one of the fifteen terrestrial biomes of the earth. Plant habitats and communities along the river margins and banks are called riparian vegetation, characterized by hydrophilic plants.
Ecological Services
beneficial natural process(es) arising from healthy ecosystems, such as purification of water and air, pollination of plants and decomposition of waste.
an area of land adjacent to a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. It includes the floodway, which consists of the stream channel and adjacent areas that actively carry flood flows downstream, and the flood fringe, which are areas inundated by the flood, but which do not experience a strong current. In other words, a floodplain is an area near a river or a stream which floods when the water level reaches flood stage.
an enlarged bank built up on each side of a river to prevent flooding
saltwater intrusion
a common problem in coastal areas, this process is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources and other consequences. It occurs naturally to some degree in most coastal aquifers, owing to the hydraulic connection between groundwater and seawater. Because saltwater has a higher mineral content than freshwater, it is denser and has a higher water pressure. As a result, saltwater can push inland beneath the freshwater
Impermeable surface
pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration