Fall Benchmark #4
US History Lawley Whitehart Buford
Terms in this set (149)
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused Chinese population in America to decrease.
Asian immigrants, who had immigrated to California in the 1880's, faced discrimination because they would work for lower wages.
political movement to regulate the environment, started by Teddy Roosevelt
26th President of the United States, hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said "Speak softly but carry a big stick"
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Plessy v Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
direct election of senators
the act of removing an official by petition
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
Settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 1889, Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
exposed the unfair practices of big business. Wrote articles about the Standard Oil Company-these articles led to demands for more controls on trusts
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
an island in New York harbor that was an entry point for immigrants coming to the United States between 1892 and 1954 from Europe
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
Standard Oil Company
John D. Rockefeller's comapny, formed in 1870, which came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded age. By 1877 it controlled 95% of the oil refineries in the U.S. It became a target for trust reformers, and in 1911 the Supreme Court ordered it to break up into several dozen smaller companies.
John D. Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
An example of big business that was made possible by Captain of Industry Andrew Carnegie. It helped fuel industrialism in America and the manufacturing center was Pittsburgh.
forced to build the Union Pacific Railroad for low pay, also forced into slums
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
One of the first industries to be regulated by the government because of its reputations of corrupt and manipulative owners
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
1876 Presidential Election
Republican Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Democrat Samuel J. Tilden
-Hayes won because of the Compromise of 1877
terrorist group of white sourhterners who used violence to keep blacks from voting
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
College founded in Atlanta to educate freedmen after the Civil War
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
abolishes slavery in the U.S.
Radical Republican Reconstruction
punish south, protect former slaves; US military occupation of South, Confederate military leaders needed pardon to hold office, protect Blacks right to vote
Lincoln's plan to rebuild the South after the Civil War. His basic policy was to avoid punishment of the South because he wanted to make sure that he could bring the South back into the Union.
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address
Lincoln urged Americans not to seek revenge on slaveholders and their supporters and military after the war. Instead, he urged reconstruction of the South "with malice toward none; with charity for all."
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Atlanta
In Atlanta. It was the Beginning of Sherman's march to the sea burning everything in its path. Atlanta was bombed attacked and burned. The first battle of the civil war. Sherman captures and burns Atlanta. This is where he began.
Siege of Vicksburg
1863 Union army's blockade of Vicksburg, Mississippi, that led the city to surrender during the Civil War and accomplish the Anaconda Plan.
Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest single day battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall
William T. Sherman
general whose march to sea caused destruction to the south, union general, led march to destroy all supplies and resoures, beginning of total warfare
Robert E. Lee
Lead Confederate forces, he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It only applied to states in rebellion (Confederate states). It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
the right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime; constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment. Lincoln suspends this during the Civil War
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
violent abolitionist who murdered slaveholders in Kansas and Missouri (1856-1858) before his raid at Harpers Ferry (1859), hoping to incite a slave rebellion; he failed and was executed, but his martyrdom by northern abolitionists frightened the South.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free state
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories and led to violence
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Mexican American War
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Idea that states have the right to limit the power of the federal government
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36o30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state.
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, he became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
movement to end slavery
The American citizens who are devoted to the nation and have patriotism.
this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Seneca Falls Conference
the first major meeting to discuss equal rights for women in the US, wrote Declaration of Sentiments-drafted after the Declaration of Independence, laid out womens' demands. Reactions: some women felt empowered, others were very critical
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
The right of women to vote.
Public School Reform
Push for public education for all children, not just the wealthy. Horace Mann
Movement to end slavery
Campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
New York City
Originally the Dutch capital city of New Netherlands, named New Amsterdam. Largest city in 1810, thanks to natural harbor, Erie Canal, and liberal commerce laws.
artificial waterway opened in 1825 linking Lake Erie to the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean
War of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Lewis and Clark
Two explorers sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
2nd President of the United States (1735-1826)
Democratic Republicans and Federalists, Because of the debate between Jefferson and Hamilton over states right and loose/strict construction
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
first president of the united states, and famous general
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists
4th President of the United States
The Federalists Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
people who opposed the Constitution
supporters of the Constitution
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice
the branch of government that makes the laws.
the branch of government that carries out laws
Charles de Montesquieu
French political thinker whose ideas influenced the Declaration of Independence. He also favored the idea of separation of powers
basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
work done under harsh conditions for little or no pay
the agreement that provided a dual system of congressional representation
the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
was led by Daniel Shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had just worked so hard to get rid of
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
The government of the United States. A set of principles (guidelines) that describe the duties and powers of the government.
powers reserved to the states
rights not mentioned in the constitution belong to the people
No cruel and unusual punishments
Right to a trial by jury in civil cases
Right to a fair, speedy trial
Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy
No unreasonable searches or siezures
No quartering of soldiers
right to bear arms
freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
1783 Treaty of Paris
Treaty which ended the American Revolutionary War. The United States won its independence from Great Britain and gained control of land stretching to the Mississippi River.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
highly respected scientist, one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. helped found UPENN, served as agent in london, and Pennsylvania, became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. served as ambassador to france during the war, helped write the declaration of independence, constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben and Lafayette come and train troops
Crossing of the Delaware
George Washington led his troops across the Delaware in the middle of the night on Christmas. This surprise attack on the British troops in New Jersey led to an American victory. It gave Americans hope that they could win the war.
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
This English philosopher argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights, social contract
Declaration of Independence
The document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Sons of Liberty
Groups of Patriots who worked to oppose British rule before the American Revolution, Boston Tea Party and Sam Adams
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding English colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains
1763 Treaty of Paris
Ended the french and Indian War
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.