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Essnetials of Understand Psychology


treatment in which a trained prefessional-a therapist-uses psychological techniques to helpt a person overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth

biomedical therapy

therapy that relies on drugs and other medical procedues to improve psychological functioning

psychodynamic therapy

therapy that seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively


Freudian psychotherapy in which the goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior


the transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient's parents or other authority figures

bahavioral treatment approaches

treatment approaches that build on the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned

aversive conditioning

a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimlus with undesired behavior

systematic desensitization

a behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety


a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted either suddently or gradually with a stimulus that they fear

dialectical behavior therapy

a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal

cognitive treatment approaches

treatment approaches that teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves

cognitive-behavioral approach

a treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think

rational-emotive behavior therapy

a form of therapy that attempts to restructure a person's belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior

humanistic therapy

therapy in which the underlying rationale is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems

person-centered therapy

therapy in which the goal is to reach one's potential for self-actualization

interpersonal therapy (IPT)

short-term therapy that focuses on the context of current social relationships

group therapy

therapy in which people meet in a group with a therapist to discuss problems

family therapy

an approach that focuses on the family and its dynamics

spontaneous remission

recovery without treatment

drug therapy

control of psychological disorders through the use of drugs

antipsychotic drugs

drugs that temporarily reduce psychotic symptoms such as agitation, hallucinations, and delusions

antidepressant drugs

medications that improve a severely depressed patient's mood and feeling of well-being

mood stabilizers

drugs used to treat mood disorders that prevent manic episodes of bipolar disorder

antianxiety drugs

drugs that reduce the level of anxiety a person experiences essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well-being

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

a procedure used in the treatment of severe depression in which an electric current of 70-150 volts is briefly administered to a patient's head

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

a depression treatment in which a precise magnetic pulse is directed to a specific area of the brain


brain surgery once used to reduce the symptoms of mental disorder but rarely used today

community psychology

a branch of psychology that focuses on the prevention and minimization of psychological disorders in the community


the transfer of former mental patients from institutions to the community

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