Permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
Also known as cold waves; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfer.
Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use.
Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)
Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.
Position of the tool in realtion to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
Also known as protective basse cream; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.
Refers to the position of the rod in realtion to its base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped
Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer
Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
Basic permanent wrap
Also known as straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized ases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
Bricklay permanent wrap
Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent nocticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.
Chemical hair relaxing
A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form
Chemical texture services
Hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
Croquignole perm wrap
Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
Curvature Permanent Wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
Double Flat Wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped
Also known as piggyback wrap; a wrap technique whereby extra long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
Also known as end wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
Perm activated by an outside heat source usually a conventional hood type hair dryer
Creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
Glyceryl Monothioglycolate (GMTG)
Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions
Half off-base Placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees to its base section and the rod is positioned half off its base section
An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13; the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers.
Long, coiled polypeptide chains.
Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a lanthionine bond.
Also known as circle rod; tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; they have a low pH.
Metal Hydroxide Relaxers
Ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen
Relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream
Conditioners with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer and prior to shampooing
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree anglebeyond perpendicular to its base section and the rod is positioned on its base section
Also known as end bonds; chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.
A two step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods and then hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer
Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
Single Flat Wrap
Perm wrap similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped
Soft Bender Rods
Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length. These soft foarm rods hace a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent in to almost any shape
Soft Curl Permanent
Combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger or looser
Spiral Perm Wrap
Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the grip on a tennis racket
Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area
Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebilds the hair in its new curly form
Use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used inpermanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10)
Perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.
True Acid Waves
Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 require heat to process (endothermic), process more slowly than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves
The meausrement of thickness or thinness of a liquid that affect how the fluid flows
Wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas