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Acid-balanced waves

Permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.

Alkaline waves

Also known as cold waves; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat

Amino acids

Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfer.

Ammonia-free waves

Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use.

Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)

Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.

Base control

Position of the tool in realtion to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.

Base cream

Also known as protective basse cream; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.

Base Direction

Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.

Base Placement

Refers to the position of the rod in realtion to its base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped

Base Relaxers

Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer

Base Section

Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.

Basic permanent wrap

Also known as straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized ases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod.

Bookend wrap

Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.

Bricklay permanent wrap

Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent nocticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.

Chemical hair relaxing

A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form

Chemical texture services

Hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.

Concave rods

Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.

Croquignole perm wrap

Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.

Curvature Permanent Wrap

Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head

Double Flat Wrap

Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped

Double-rod Wrap

Also known as piggyback wrap; a wrap technique whereby extra long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.

End Papers

Also known as end wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.

Endothermic Waves

Perm activated by an outside heat source usually a conventional hood type hair dryer

Exothermic Waves

Creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing

Glyceryl Monothioglycolate (GMTG)

Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions

Half off-base Placement

Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees to its base section and the rod is positioned half off its base section

Hydroxide neutralization

An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.

Hydroxide Relaxers

Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13; the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers.

Keratin Proteins

Long, coiled polypeptide chains.


Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a lanthionine bond.

Loop Rod

Also known as circle rod; tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.

Low-pH waves

Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; they have a low pH.

Metal Hydroxide Relaxers

Ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen

No-base Relaxers

Relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream

Normalizing lotions

Conditioners with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer and prior to shampooing

Off-base Placement

Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section

On-base Placement

Base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree anglebeyond perpendicular to its base section and the rod is positioned on its base section

Peptide Bonds

Also known as end bonds; chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.

Permanent Waving

A two step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods and then hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer

Polypeptide Chains

Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

Single Flat Wrap

Perm wrap similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped

Soft Bender Rods

Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length. These soft foarm rods hace a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent in to almost any shape

Soft Curl Permanent

Combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger or looser

Spiral Perm Wrap

Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the grip on a tennis racket

Straight Rods

Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area

Thio Neutralization

Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebilds the hair in its new curly form

Thio Relaxers

Use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used inpermanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10)

Thio-free Waves

Perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.

True Acid Waves

Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 require heat to process (endothermic), process more slowly than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves


The meausrement of thickness or thinness of a liquid that affect how the fluid flows

Weave Technique

Wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas

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