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71 terms

Goal 10

WWII
STUDY
PLAY
Stalin
Totalitarian leader in the Soviet Union
Replaced private farms with gov't owned farms
purged millions of people who protested his gov't
Totalitarian gov't
a gov't led by a single party or dictator, that controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people
Mussolini
fascist leader of Italy
called Il Duce
eventually executed in 1945
Fascism
stressed extreme nationalism and palced the interests of the state above the rights of the people.
Hitler
Der Fuher
leader of the Nazi Party in Germany
established the Third Reich
Nazism
1. German fascism, unite all German speaking peoples
2. Racial purification - Aryan = master race
3. National expansion - "lebensraum" (living space)
lebensraum
living space
Third Reich
Third German Empire
Franco
leader of the Fascist rebellion in Spain
appeasement
the policy of conceding to an enemy in hopes of maintaining peace
Neutrality Acts
banned loans and the sale of arms to countries at war or civil war
Sudetenland
border region between Germany and Czechoslovakia, Hitler gained it in the Munich Agreement
Churchill
Prime Minister of Great Britain during the majority of WWII
had a close relationship with FDR
Nonaggression pact
signed between the Soviet Union and Germany stating that the countries would not attack each other and would split Poland
Blitzkrieg
"lightning attack" - effective, quick, and overwhelming, practiced by the Germans
The Holocaust
the systematic/methodical murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews
Anti-semitism
hatred of Jews
Nuremberg Laws
stripped German Jews of citizenship, jobs, and property
Kristallnacht
"Night of Broken Glass," Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and temples
Final Solution
policy of genocide
Genocide
Deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population
Ghettos
dismal, crowded, segregated areas in certain polish cities which were lined with barbed wire and stone walls
concentration camps
labor camps
"Cash and carry" policy
US would allow the sale of arms to cuntries if they 1) paid cash, 2) transported the arms on their own ships
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
Selective Service and Training Act
1st peacetime draft, 1940
Lend Lease Act, 1941
lend or lease arms/war supplies to countries that were vital the defense of the Us
Atlantic Charter
US-Brtain delcaration of joint war aims
Hideki Tojo
head of Japanese military
December 7, 1941
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps
WAAC, volunteer positions for women with military benefits and status
A. Philip Randolph
labor leader and African American activist, organized but cancelled a march on Washington DC to protest segregation and discrimination
Manhattan Project
secret project to create an atomic bomb
Office of Price Adminstration
OPA, gov't administration that fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods, raised income tax, encouraged sale of war bonds
War Productions Board (WPB)
ensured constant production of resources for armed forces, set which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production, allocated raw materials, organized nationwide drives to collect scrap metal
Rationing
established fixed allotments of goosd deemed essential for the military
Battle of the Atlantic
1942-1943, German u-boats lined US east coast, Allies suffer many ship losses however US begins effective production of ships and destroy u-boats to regain the Atlantic
Battle of Stalingrad
Winter 1942, German attack on Soviet city, Germans gained 9/10 of city, Soviet tanks surrounded city and force German surrender, TURNING POINT in WWII in favor of the Soviet Union
Luftwaffe
German air force
Operation Torch
Allied invasion of Axis controlled north Africa
Dwight D. Eisenhower
US General who led Operation Torch
Italian Campaign
Allied forces campaign in Italy, Italian king forces Mussolini's retirement
Tuskegee Airmen
99th Puruit Squadron, all black unit
100th Battalion
Nisei (2nd generation Japanese American) unit, most decorated unit in history
June 6, 1944
D-Day, Massive Allied land, sea, and air attack on German occupied France. Landed on the shores of Normandy in France.
Battle of the Bulge
Oct 1944, Hitler's last effort to stand ground. Germany army tries to break through Allied lines to Belgium, however failed, only creating a bulge in the line.
Harry Truman
33rd POTUS, in office after FDR's death, ordered atomic bombs on Japan
Victory in Europe Day
May 8, 1945, "V-E" Day, Third Reich officially surrendered
General Douglas MacArthur
Commanded the Allied forces in the Philippines
Doolittle's Raid
April 18, 1942, Allied air raid on Tokyo and other Japanese cities
Admiral Chester Nimitz
Admiral who defended the island of Midway
Battle of Midway
Turning point in WWII in the Pacific in favor of the Allies, 1942
Guadalcanal
"Island of Death," in the Solomon Islands, taken by the Allies, 1942
kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots
Okinawa
"Typhoon of Steel," island won by the Allies in 1945, 340 miles from Japan
J. Robert Oppenheimer
lead scientist on the Manhattan Project
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Japanese cities upon which the US dropped 2 atomic bombs
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill, Stalin met to discuss Germany's fate
1) Germany divided into 4 sections (US, Britain, France, USSR)
2) Free and unfettered elections in Poland and other Soviet occupied eastern European countries
3) Stalin joined war in Pacific and agreed to participate in an international peace conference
Nuremberg War Trials
Trials prosecuting Nazi leaders for various WWII crimes
crimes against humanity
murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement of citizens
crimes against peace
planning/waging an aggressive war
war crimes
acts against the customs of warfare, such as the killing of hostages and prisoners, the plundering of private property, and the destruction of towns and cities.
MacArthur Constitution
Japanese constitution that includes suffrage for women and guaranteed individual/personal rights
GI Bill of Rights. 1944
provided opportunities and federal home/farm loans to veterans
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE), founded by James Farmer, protested African American segregation
Detroit Race Riot of 1943
3 day race riot in Chicago, FDR sent federal troops to calm riots
Zoot Suit Riot
LA race riot between whites (especially sailors) and Mexican Americans and other minorities, lasted almost a week
Internment
confinement
Korematsu v. US
1944, Supreme Court ruled that the internment of Japanese Americans was a "military necessity"
Japanese American Citizens League
JACL, pushed for reparations to interned Japanese Americans
Iwo Jima
Won by the Allies, location where the iconic photograph of soldiers raising the American flag was taken