Changed the social norms for and the public image of women; they drank, smoked, used slang, experimented sexually. Transition of body image from heavyset/childbearing to skinny/provocative.
>>> Know change of women's image.
The 1920s Ku Klux Klan
The KKK broadened their focus in the 1920s from just targeting blacks to include Catholics, jews, foreigners, elite, intellectuals. Basically, anyone and anything that promoted the shift from rural to urban America. The KKK also shifted towards politics and attempted to dominate local and state governments by recruiting and appointing members. This political dominance was known as the "Invisible Empire"
>>> Know shift to politics and anti-urbanization
The National Origins Act of 1924
This act instituted admission quotas by using the 1890 census to determine the population of a particular nationality group; the government then only allowed 2 percent of that population into the nation. In addition, the act completely barred immigration for all those whom the Supreme Court prohibited from obtaining U.S. citizenship, specifically Asians.
>>> Know implicitly targeted Asians from immigrating
Black leader who advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
>>> Know wanted blacks to migrate back to Africa
The Scopes "Monkey Trial"
Court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools.
>> Know publicity trial to spur large debate on evolution vs creation
Warren G Harding
29th President of the United States (1921-1923). A Republican from Ohio. promised return to normality after WW1 used efforts of make no enemies during his presdiency. scandals affected his presidency such as the Ohio Gang that had to do with financial jobs that he offered his friends. Died into his presidency.
Warren G. Harding's 1920 campaign promise - return the United States to pre-world war mentality; without the thought of war tainting the minds of the American people.
>>> Know return to pre-war America
Believed Government is business. taciturn, pro-business president (1923-1929) who took over after Harding's death, restored honesty to government, and accelerated the tax cutting and antiregulation policies of his predecessor; his laissez-faire policies brought short-term prosperity from 1923 to 1929.
Progressive. Reduced workdays to 8hrs. Increased top tax bracket and corporate taxes.
Organization for unemployment relief.
Fixed employment and wages.
Preferred voluntary private relief.
The "Bonus Marchers"
WWI veterans marching during the Great Depression for the bonuses they were supposed to get in return for fighting in the war.
>>> Know WWI soldiers wanting war payment during great depression
The Great Depression
___ ______ ________ was an economic slump in North America, Europe, and other industrialized areas of the world that began on "Black Tuesday "in 1929 and lasted until about 1939. It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world.
>>> Know lots of people had no money for a while...
Franklin D. Roosevelt
4 terms in office (1933-1945). New deal. He built the New Deal Coalition that united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans, and rural white Southerners. The Coalition realigned American politics after 1932, creating the Fifth Party System and defining American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century. Wanted to add additional members to the supreme court- "packing" the court.
The New Deal
FDR's first attempt to bring America out of the Great Depression. Notion that the government should step in and help when private initiatives fail. The "use of the authority of government as an organized form of self-help for all classes and groups and sections of our country." Social security is part of the new deal and still continues today. Implemented the National Recovery Act which was designed to bring stability to industy.
>>> Know FDR's plan to alleviate the Great Depression by having the government step in and create programs/jobs
The Tennessee Valley Authority
Federal corporation that brought power and flood control to the south via hydroelectric dams on the many rivers in the Tennessee Valley. Part of FDRs plan to alleviate the Great Depression.
>>> Know brought power to the Tennessee Valley region
The Lend-Lease Act
Gave FDR virtually unlimited authority to direct aid to the war effort in Europe without violating America's official position of neutrality.
>>> Know allowed FDR to aid allies while staying neutral (also gave a bit to Axis)
Hawaiian military base attacked by Japanese. Brought the US into WWII
>>> Know brought the US into WWII
The notion that Germany had to fall first before Japan. If the US went after Japan first, Germany would have had a chance to overpower the allies in Europe.
>>> Know Germany would have been too powerful if US focused on Japan first.
The Coral Sea and Midway
An allied naval victory over the japanese navy on the pacific front in WWII, prevented the Japanese from conquering midway and in turn preventing them from making a move in Hawaii
Jap. loses 4 aircraft carriers, US loses 2
>>> Know Turning point of the Pacific Theatre.
Battle of Normandy/ DDay
>>> Know Turning point of the European Theatre
The "Zoot Suit Riot"
Mexican-American riots in LA during WWII following the death of a young latino man. US marines and sailors attacked Mexican youths who were easily identifiable by their "Zoot Suits"
the forced relocation and incarceration during World War II of between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry who lived on the Pacific coast in camps in the interior of the country. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered their incarceration shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
>>> Know that it was just Japanese-Americans, not German- or Italian-Americans
Harry S. Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. He led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, _______ was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Japanese pilots crashing planes into US ships mostly against their will.
The atomic bomb
Two dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan. Critical in ending the Pacific Theatre
Russia's communistic influence, was a component of the Cold War, was a response to a series of moves by the soviet union to expend communism into eastern Europe.
The Marshall Plan
Plan to rebuild Europe after the war, US gave 13 billion dollars to wester Europe for economic support - lesson learned from WWI
The Berlin Blockade
One of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control.
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
Formed after further communist expansion, US got nervous and formed and alliance with 11 other countries to prevent this. The communist countries did the same and formed a rival alliance
NATO: Western Powers
Warsaw Pact: Soviet Powers
Framework for the cold war
The G.I. Bill of Rights
Benefits for the veterans of WWII - college, housing, etc.
Calling out those dirty communists in American communities and government. name stems from republican US senator John McCarthy
The Korean War
Started when North Korean soldiers crossed the 38th parallel into South Korea, was the first actions of the Cold War. US wanted to reach an armistice with North Korea for fear of Russian or Chinese involvement or even a potential WWIII
North Korea - Communism
South Korea - Capitalism
Could have been all Capitalistic if not for Chinese intervention.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Nicknamed "Ike", was a General of the Army (five star general) in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). As President, he oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, kept up the pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, launched the Space Race, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System.
Loved by both parties
part of suburbanization and the status of women and teenagers
Moving away from the cities and into the suburbs - partially a result of the GI Bill
Interstate Highway Act
Eisenhower's plan to build a highway system across the US
Lawyer with the NAACP (later first black supreme court justice) influential in getting southern schools integrated. see Little Rock 9
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Overturned "Separate but Equal"
Served as a catalyst for modern civil rights movements, inspiring education reform everywhere.
Refused to move to the back of the bus. Sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott and ultimately the Civil Rights Movement
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Blacks in Montgomery, Alabama boycotted public transportation until the city removed its bus segregation policies
Martin Luther King, Jr.
a minister who was committed to nonviolent protest (inspired by Gandhi); leader of southern christian leadership conference and Montgomery bus boycott; gave I Have a Dream speech; shot in Memphis TN
African Americans sat at diner counters in Greensboro, NC for about 6 months until segregation at diner counters was repealed
Integrated buses from the north went to the south to protest southern bus segregation. One time it didn't go well and the bus was firebombed.
John F. Kennedy
1960-1963: assassinated by Lee Oswald. Lydon Johnson took over as president. Called for Bay of Pigs attack in Cuba and failed miserably
The Cuban Missile Crisis
A high altitude US spy plane got pictures of Cuba showing it was getting missiles from Russia. JFK posted a naval "quarantine" (not "blockade"); making Kruschev look weak. Kennedy and Kruschev were at the brink of destruction when Kennedy made an offer that if all missiles were removed from cuba then he would retract missiles from turkey, but if not he would attack cuba within 24 hours
The Viet Cong
Northern Vietnamese rebels. Looked like regular civilians.
Signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. He had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Result of the civil rights movement. Finally made segregation illegal.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Allowed Johnson to intervene in Vietnam, in the incident, a destroyer was attacked by the Vietnamese and a few later a second attack ensued (the second attack is debated to be true) deeming retaliation necessary
The Ho Chi Minh Trail
The supply line of Northern Vietnamese into South Vietnam. Went through Cambodia and Laos (two neutral countries)
The Tet Offensive
over 100 coordinated attacks by the Viet Cong, occurred across all south Vietnam, largest military attack up to that point in the war.
The final straw that showed the US had no hope of winning the war in Vietnam
Elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. Was the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
Did NOT sign civil rights act
"Plumbers" broke into the Democratic headquarters in the Watergate building. Nixon was super paranoid and this scandal led to his impeachment.
The Iran Hostage Crisis
1979 - Iranian revolution, Rebels took over the US embassy in Tehran and People in the US embassy were kidnapped
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Trickle-down economics - relax taxes on the rich; if they have more money, they'll spend more on employee wages and buy stuff to spur the economy
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Reagan's plan to prevent nuclear Armageddon. System of lasers, rail guns, etc. in space that would protect the US (and the world if he could swing it) from nuclear missiles. Nicknamed Star Wars
Sandinistas took over governemnt and the US ot wanting a Marx-influenced party in power for fear of the spread of communism supported guerrilla rebels called contras to prevent this
Contras: not communists
US backed the Contras with arms
George H. W. Bush
was the 42st president of the United States, previously being Ronald Reagan's vice-president. His policies and ideals derived heavily from his predecessor and were built on them. He was a well-to-do oil tycoon before devoting himself to the public. He served as a congressman, emissary to China, ambassador to the UN, director of the CIA, and vice president before becoming president.
The First Gulf War
Saddam was getting a bit too greedy and went into Kuwait.
Instead of its usual antics, the US brought the issue to the UN, and it was dealt with internationally. Once Kuwait was free, the mission ended. The US could have kept going, but they learned their lesson from Korea and Vietnam and stopped.
Entered off in January 1993, as the first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. He had a very domestic agenda. When in office he had a lot of controversial appointments. When a longtime friend, Vince Foster, committed suicide it sparked an escalating inquiry into some banking and real estate ventures involving the president and his wife in the early 1980s. This became known as the Whitewater affair. Responsible for balancing the budget and medicaid.
Affair with Monica Lewinsky
Second president to be impeached.
George W. Bush
Election of 2000, extremely close. Opponent: Al Gore.
President during 9/11
USA Patriot act
Tax cuts: $380 billion slashed
Justification for war? Weapons of Mass Destruction
Attacks of 9-11
Al Queda, Osama Bin Ladin, attack on the World Trade Center, lead to war on terror in Middle East
The War on Terror
Retaliation for 9/11
Bad news in 2005. Hurricane devastated New Orleans because the cities' engineers didn't plan well enough. Major flooding that Fema couldn't keep up with.
Won 2008 election, first black president.
Unemployment levels extremely high, Obamacare,