POL 102 Chapters 7-13
Terms in this set (339)
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Ended the Seven Years' War between France and Britain
Trade route linking China with the West
Trade model stressing the role of government in trade and emphasizing the importance of balance-of-payment surpluses
Ideology promoting economic national self-sufficient and an end to economic interaction with other countries
Theory that each country specializes in producing specific products in order to better trade with other states
Shift toward the production of goods and services based on cost consideration, arbitrary specialization, and government and corporate policies.
Strategic Trade Theory
Supports government subsidies of private industry
Passed in Britain to protect wealthy producers of grain from foreign competition
Smoot-Hawley Tariffs Act
Designed to protect American industries and trade from foreign competition
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
Authorized the president to negotiate tariff reductions on a bilateral basis
International Monetary Fund
Created to supplement private capital for international investment, originally with the intent of reconstructing Europe
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
Created to supplement private capital for international investment, originally with the intent of reconstructing Europe
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Created in 1947 to promote free trade and to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers
Meetings that replaced the GATT with WTO
Most-Favored Nation Clause
Prohibits trade discrimination among WTO members
Intellectual Property Rights
Control that people and corporations have over artistic, creative, scientific, industrial, and educational inventions767
Relaxed patent protection for brand-name drugs by allowing poor countries to manufacture generic medicines
How much of one country's money can be bought with a specific amount of another country's money
An arrangement under which countries prevent their currencies from rising against the dollar.
Difference between the value of goods and services that a country buys
Occurs when the value of exported goods and services is larger than the value of imported goods and services.
Taxes imposed on exports and imports that increase their cost
specified limits on products to create a barrier to importing them
government payments to industries that keep their prices artificially low.
Common Agricultural Policy
(CAP) supports agricultural subsidies to EU member countries
relationship among politicians, interest groups, and government agencies linked to farming interests.
characterized by the removal of trade barriers among members
Southern African Customs Union
World's oldest customs, union, formed in 1910
established the European Monetary System to mobilize monetary affairs in Western Europe
Single European Act
Set the objective of building a unified European trading system
NAFTA (The North American Trade Agreement
Formed by the US, Mexico and Canada that allows free trade to occur between them.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Formed in 1967, purpose changed from security to trade interests of non-leading-power nations
South American Common Market (Mercosur)
trade group created to integrate latin american economies and foster stronger trading ties with the US
Program for Integration and Economic Cooperation (PIEC)
Agreement to develop closer economic and political ties between Brazil and Argentina
British economist who conceptualized the idea of comparative advantage, in relation to free trade policy
Premises of GATT
1. Multilateral negotiations are preferable to bilateral negotiations
2. Private economic actors are preferable to state actors
3. Free trade ultimately benefits global society
4. Governments distort ideals of the free market; should lessen their involvement
Factors that Contribute to Decline of Labor Unions
1. Public's perception of unions
2. Political change
3. Shift from manufacturing to knowledge based economy
4. The Globalization of Individualism
5. Global Competition for Employment
6. The Global Financial Crisis and Economic Recession
1. Improving agricultural productivity
2. Improving living standards for those engaged in
3. Agriculture, stabilizing markets
4. Guaranteeing regular food supplies
5. Providing food at reasonable prices to consumers
Reasons in Favor of the Formation of Regional Trade Blocs
1. Economic Development
2. Managing Trade Regionally
3. Economic Competition
4. Political Strategy Considerations
The major catalyst in the growth of globalization and national power.
Asian Financial Crisis
Started in Indonesia, caused stock markets to crash, and reversed economic growth
FDIC: Federal Deposits Insurance Corporation
Insures individual deposits for up to $250,000
Removed many government restrictions on financial institutions in the United States and other countries
Global Financial Liberalization
Opening banks around the world to competition
Glass-Steagall Act of 1933
Prohibited commercial banks from underwriting or marketing securities
Sophisticated financial engineering, an outgrowth of revolutions in computer and telecommunications technologies
Financial engineering designed to reduce risk
Bets on the creditworthiness of a particular company, like insurance on a loan.
Credit Default Swaps
Financial innovation used to transfer credit risks away from banks
Collateralized Debt Swaps
Linked to mortgage companies
Enabled wealthy investors to avoid some financial regulations in global financial markets.
Simultaneously buying at a lower price in one market and selling at a higher price in another market to make a profit.
Chairman of the U.S Federal Reserve who kept interest rates low.
Sovereign Wealth Funds
Created by countries to save and recycle surplus revenues.
High-risk credit given to individuals who fail to meet rigorous standards
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac
U.S government corporations involved in real estate.
A long-term loan that has varying interest rates
Involves excessive risk taking, excessive optimism, and the development of a herd mentality
Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997
Exempted profits from taxes gained from selling one's home.
Brasil, Russia, India and China; emerging global powers.
Yaga Venugobal Reddy
Governor of the Reserve Bank of India; credited with helping India avoid the financial crisis.
U.S Secretary of the Treasury who initiated the stimulus package to rescue banks on Wall Street
Money allocated by governments to financial institutions and selected industries to prevent their collapse and reinvigorate economic growth.
A type of monetary stimulus used by the U.S Federal Reserve. Long-Term Treasury bonds are purchased to decrease interest rates.
The health insurance, pensions, and other programs that European governments provide citizens and that lessen losses in economic hard times.
Ben S. Bernanke
Chairman of the U.S Federal Reserve
Bank for International Settlements
Based in Basel, Switzerland; Created to regulate banking and harmonize banking standards
Causes of Global Financial Crisis
1. Deregulation of financial markets
2. Sophisticated financial technological innovations
3. Excessive executive compensation
4. Low interest rates
5. Subprime loans; especially mortgages
6. Speculation of housing Market
Glass-Steagall Act-Deregulatory Policies
1. Free movement of capital across borders
2. Repeal of legislation that separated commercial and investment banks
3. Decreased regulatory enforcement by the SEC
4. Allowing banks to measure their own risk
5. Failure to update technologies
4 Stages of Speculative Bubbles
1. New technologies change people's expectations
2. Prices or profits continue to rise; draws people in
3. Boom passes into euphoria and rational decision making is suspended
4. Bust is inevitable; prices and profits fall
British East India Company
British company that dominated Indian trade. paid asian farmers to produce opium which was sold to independent wholesalers
Fought so that the British could force the opium trade onto the Chinese people. 1839
Demand for opium in Europe and America was on the rise due to several factors
1. the advancement in medical practices (morphine and heroin) and hypodermic needles to administer
2. significant cultural and economic changes resulted from Industrial revolution
3. migration of Chinese
4. the growth of global trade
5. the rise of mass consumption habits
6. military conflicts (US civil war drugs used to reduce pain)
drives drug trade
countries that cultivate opium poppies (Burma/Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos). smuggle in heroin
Golden Crescent Countries
Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran. smuggle in heroin
Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, South america.
Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, and Thailand.
War on drugs
stresses supply side control and harsh treatment of drug users. US
drug prevention and harm reduction
emphasizes the need to keep drugs out of society and treat drug abuse as a disease. Europe
Hague Convention of 1911
Broadened the international drug-fighting effort by cracking down on morphine and cocaine. ineffective because some countries such as Germany, insisted that implementation be made conditional on worldwide acceptance.
Harrison Act 1914
US act requiring distributors and prescribers of dugs to be registered and pay taxes
Opium Control Board
Established under the L of N to monitor countries' compliance with international drug agreements
U.S. sponsored anti drug campaign implemented to eradicate colombia's cocaine production. goal was to cut supplies in half by 2005
Harm reduction approaches
aim at drug prevention and drug treatment. Holland pioneered. decriminalized possession and use of small amounts of "soft" drugs (pot), provides "safe injection rooms" so that addicts avoid public places, distributes sterile syringes to reduce spread of AIDS, supports medical treatment.
forced movement of people within or between countries
transporting people from one area to another, where they are subjugated to forced labor or prostitution
feminization of migration
the increasing percentage of women in the migrant population
four waves of sexual human trafficking
first wave: 1970s women from Southeast Asia (Thailand and the Philippines)
second wave: early 1980s women from Africa (Ghana and Nigeria)
third wave: 1980s-1990s women from Latin America (colombia, Brazil, and Dominican Republic)
fourth wave: mirrors complexity of globalization connected with demise of Soviet Union. women from Eastern and Central Europe
Fourth World Conference on Women
Called on governments to prevent trafficking in women
UN Protocol Against the Trafficking in Women and Children
Global effort in 2000 to address growing trafficking problem
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act
Requires the United States to prosecute human traffickers and to publish an annual report on global trafficking.
animals and plants vulnerable to extinction. invasive species, endangered animals, etc. sold for food and pet shops, or sold for consumer goods. medicinal plants have great demand because the health problems associated.
Wild Bird Conservation Act
bans imports of all wild-caught threatened parrots listed in CITES
standard crimes committed online. fraud, pornography, smuggling, copyright and software piracy, identity theft, and extortion
the biggest online marketplace. little control over transactions
one of the most common cybercrimes. a nigerian sends an e-mail asking prospective victims to assist him or her to transfer millions of recently acquired dollars out of Nigeria in exchange for a substantial part of the money.
famous internet virus named after the Indian guide to eroticism.
includes online music piracy and conterfeiting
intellectual property rights
control that people and corporations have over artistic, creative, scientific, industrial, and educational inventions.
far more beneficial to non state actors, including smugglers, drug traffickers, and other global criminal networks, than it has been to nation-states.
global clearinghouse for police information tat assists countries in criminal cases. based in France.
UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime
Global agreement aimed at reducing crime through global cooperation
excessive population within an area that lacks enough resources for long-term sustainment
rate at which a population remains stable. to achieve this, fertility rates must average 2.1 children per couple.
argued that because population increases by a geometrical ratio and food supplies increase by an arithmetic ratio, the world would have high rates of population growth and suffer starvation. WRONG
the maximum number of humans or animals that can survive within a given area.
developing countries and population issues
inadequate education, low rates of contraception usage, cultural norms, need for labor, and need to have children to support parents are reasons why population increase is greater in those countries.
Indian case of poverty and overpopulation
more than 400 million indians are in poverty and illiterate yet their population grows 3 people per minute or 48,000 per day.
Women and population
women's level of education stingily influences fertility rates. helps determine factors that affect population growth rates.
discrimination against an individual or group based on sex or gender classifications. strongly influences population decisions.
preference for male children- influences having kids until a boy is born
financial gift given to the husband's family by the wife's family at marriage in many traditional societies. female children are seen as financial and social liability. up to 6 million female fetus' aborted in India from 2000-2010 . Female infanticide has contributed to the gender ratio in india and china
imposed on families in china to limit population growth. those who comply receive a monthly stipend until the child is 14. exceptions include: 1) if the first child has a defect 2) if remarriage, if one partner does not have a child 3) if couples are involved in certain jobs, such as mining 4) if both partners come form families with one child.
disparity of population size between Europe and other countries
1. europe was settled by humans who migrated from Africa into Asia (started smaller)
2. geography and climate discouraged large numbers of people form settling in Europe
3. Confronted with overpopulation europe conquered, colonized, and settled other places
subreplacement fertility regimes
patterns of childbearing resulting in population decline. Russia (communicable diseases, environmental problems, alcohol pouncing, STDs, abortion).
Europe's aging societies
1) life expectancy has climbed
2) huge baby boom 1940s and 1950s
3) declining fertility rates, below replacement rates, increase old proportion
strategies to increase young population in developed countries
1) substantially increasing immigration to offset declining fertility rates
2) postponing or abandoning retirement
3)encouraging higher fertility rates
4) investing more in the education of workers to increase productivity
5) strengthening intergenerational responsibilities within families
6) targeting government-paid benefits to those who need them most,
7) requiring workers to invest for their own retirements
movement of people from one place to another
a person who moves from one country or area to another country or location
migrants living outside their country of origin who are unwilling or unable to return. today due to famine, natural disasters, political, religious, economic oppression.
refugees attempting to obtain permanent residence in the country to which they fled.
one who has fled his or her home but has not left the home country (due to violence, conflict, persecution, or natural disaster)
one who travels to a foreign country, become a permanent resident
movement of people from one continent to another
Gender and Migration
men are more likely to migrate than women. women migrate to rice societies to work in factories, tourism, education, hospitals, businesses, and private homes.
movement of people within a specified region
the most dominant form of migration in both developed and developing countries
families and individuals move from one city to another to find employment, pursue a college degree, or be in a culturally dynamic area.
strategy to encourage economic development of the countryside and relieve population pressures on urban centers.
movement of people based on seasonal demand for labor
movement of people from one country on the way to another
forced and induced migration
involuntary movement of people, often due to a government initiative
movement of people back to the country from which they originally emigrated
negative developments leading many people to leave their homes. Includes abuses of fundamental human rights, forced resettlement programs and expulsion, high levels of violence and political instability, natural disasters, environment problems, and famines, globalization and discrimination compounded by competitive exclusion
governments force resettlement for several reasons...
1. to achieve cultural homogeneity (newly independent countries) (Spain expelled the jews)
2. to subdue a region or a people (Mao in China)
3. to evict dissidents and opponents of the government (Castro)
4. To achieve foreign policy objectives
5. To achieve economic and national security objectives
process by which government allows agrocorporations to monopolize productive land
Unived Nations Geneva Convention
stressed the importance of granting asylum to refugees who have ben persecuted
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
institution that helps with refugees
use of military force in defense of human rights
International Committee of the Red Cross
organization involved in humanitarian operations worldwide. task made difficult by inability or unwillingness of some countries to separate fighters form innocent civilians in refugee camps
United Nations Relief Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
UN agency established to aid in relief, education, and welfare services for Palestinian refugees (1949)
positive developments inducing people to move form their homes. include Freedom, economic opportunities, colonization and financial globalization, globalization, family reunification and cultural ties, sparsely populated areas, availability of educational and cultural opportunities
a community of people living outside their original or ancestral country
cities that contain enough migrants to make them international in scope and appeal
process by which one family member immigrates to a country and then encourages other family members to join him or her.
immigration enterprise zone
areas created to attract immigrants due to underpopulation problems
national quota system
system to limit immigration into the US
agreements between the United States and Mexico to promote the migration of Mexican workers to the United states on a temporary basis (ended 1964)
U.S. operation that deported hundreds of thousands of Mexican migrants
policy of assimilation
French policy allowing man people from its colonies to become residents and citizens of France.
Jean-Marie Le Pen
anti-immigration leader in france
Gastarbeiter rotation system
set german plan for foreign workers to stay one to three years then return home.
migration of highly educated, skilled, and trained people form one country to another
when countries retain an oversupply of skilled individuals
money earned abroad sent by migrants to their home countries
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs)
Epidemic-level noninfectious diseases (obesity, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases) and causes 63% of all deaths and increases poverty
Spread of HIV/AIDs
spread to the general population through blood transfusions, IV drug usage, and heterosexual practices.
Reemergence of disease
1) growing resistance to common antibiotics
2) devastating impact of new epidemics (cholera in LA, plague in India, Ebola in Africa, dengue fever in Asia, West Nile in U.S., Mad Cow disease in U.S. and Europe)
Global Travel and Communications
-humans are most efficient at transmitting diseases
-Unsanitary conditions helped spread disease
-trade is a huge factor in the spread of infectious diseases
-increase of earth's temperature are conducive to the global spread of diseases
-ethnic conflicts, widespread violence, and wars contribute to outbreaks
Refugees and Diseases
deterioration of health services, destruction of infrastructure, food shortages, and lack of sanitation make refugees very susceptible.
poverty and diseases
incubator of disease due to overcrowding, malnutrition, inadequate medical care, and unsanitary conditions
antibiotics and diseases
overuse and misuse of antibiotics cause Pathogenic natural selection
Pathogenic Natural Selection
process that promotes more virulent, resilient, resistant, and powerful disease strains.
stresses a common and comprehensive security worldwide
focuses on the individual as the primary object of security. globalist school of thought.
emergence of human security
1) end of the cold war
2) better understanding of everyday insecurities experienced by world's poor.
3) process of globalization ushered unprecedented changes and uncertainty
UN Millennium Development Goals
Four of the goals concentrate on health-related issues
globalization of infectious diseases threatens human security
1) diseases kill more people then wars
2) disease undermines public confidence in the state, eroding legitimacy
3) disease weakens economic foundations of human security
4) disease profoundly affects social order and stability
5) spread of infectious disease contributes to regional instability
6) disease can be used in biowarfare and bio-terriorism
organisms capable of causing disease
when infectious diseases spread to a large number of people
long-lasting, catastrophic global epidemics
two factors to root of infectious diseases
1) social, economic and environmental conditions that enable infectious diseases to exist
2) various means of transmission to new populations
organisms that carry diseases. humans are infected when they come into contact with natural hosts. not negatively affected by the disease.
transmission of disease from host animals to humans through air, water, or direct contact with the host's bodily fluids, and sexual activity. or through vectors such as mosquitos and other insects.
Three Epidemiological Transitions: First
related to the establishment of agricultural communities. sanitation problems: cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and fowl transmitted tuberculosis, anthrax, and other diseases. large populations were killed by plagues. One pandemic was Plague of Justinian and other plague was the Black Death
Plague of Justinian
Named after the Roman emperor, it devastated Europe around 541 A.D.
Europeans believed cats were witches and killed them spreading the plague. Bubonic plague that killed roughly 25 million people throughout Europe (one in three europeans)
Three Epidemiological Transitions: Second
Coincided with the Industrial Revolution. Overcrowding, environmental degradation, and unsanitary conditions led to rebounding of cholera, smallpox, and tuberculosis.
Three Epidemiological Transitions: Third
The current wave of infectious diseases for example outbreak of Congo fever in India, and growing antimircrobial resistance due to frequent use and misuse of antibiotics.
A contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract. Needs urgent attention due to lethality and speed of transmission. serious threat to children, elderly, and people with compromised immune systems.
Most lethal influenze pandemic that caused 50 million deaths.
throughout the world, large commercial poultry farms as well as the proliferation of chickens kept by families have provided ideal conditions for the spread of this.
Originated in Mexico, quickly declared a pandemic and closed down mexico city. Quickly acted upon by WHO
mutation of viruses that enhance chances of human-to-human transmission of disease.
Medicine used to treat patients infected with the avian flu
Malaria, Dengue, and Yellow Fever
-primarily found in the tropics
-spread by mosquitos (vector-bourne)
-global transportation and global warming allow them to spread outside tropical areas.
-Malaria is the worst and most deadly
-contracted when bitten by a female mosquitos that infects red blood cells, causing chills, fever and often death.
-mainly in Africa
Increase in Malaria due to...
-population pressures influenced farmers to cultivate areas bordering swamps making more
-construction of dams and irrigation systems mosquitos altered natural environment and causes breeding grounds.
-Natural Disasters destroy sanitation facilities cause standing water to breed mosquitos
-global warming causes more rainfall and breed mosquitos
Pregnant women and Malaria
-during pregnancy threatens child's development. causes anemia resulting in maternal mortality
-causes low birth-weight, brain damage, and cognitive impairment
used originally as a agricultural insecticide then used to control typhus epidemics. then used to eradicate Malaria.
Global Malaria Campaign
Intensified the use of DDT to control malaria.
strategy that emphasized the control and containment, as opposed to the eradication of malaria.
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Provides bed nets to Zambia to control the spread of Malaria
viral disease transmitted by mosquitos that acquire it when they suck from an infected person. marked by fever, severe headaches, muscle and bone pain, shock, and fatal hemorrhaging
endemic in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Caribbean Islands. fever, muscle pain, backaches, headaches, shivering, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomitting.
-Tuberculosis is rampant in refugee camps and is significant in rich countries that have high migration rate from poor countries.
-overcrowding, rapid growth of prison population, rapid growth in global travel on airplanes with limited air circulation, and global trend toward privatizing public health care contribute to reemergence of tuberculosis in affluent countries
Occurred from 1992-1995 and contributed tot he quadrupling of tuberculosis in the Balkans
Factors that Contribute to Tuberculosis as a Global Disease
1) declined in rich countries, but increased in developing world
2) many policymakers and general population in wealthy countries underestimated the degree to which their health was intertwined with people in other parts of the world
3) emergence of HIV/AIDS pandemic rejuvenated tuberculosis, new concerns for wealthy countries
4) world was unprepared for an increase in outbreaks of multi drug-resistant tuberculosis
introduced in 1991 by the WHO to control tuberculosis. five elements
1) governments commitment to sustained tuberculosis control
2) detection of tuberculosis cases through sputum smear microscopy
3) supply of antituberculosis drugs
4) 6-8 months supervised treatment
5) reporting systems to monitor treatment
-Evolved from SIV found in chimpanzees in southwestern Africa.
-Pandemic, 70% in Africa. 60% are women.
-passed from on individual to another through the exchange of bodily fluids during sexual intercourse, through blood transfusions, from mother to fetus, through IV drug use, and other activities in which blood is transmitted from one person to another.
-Globalization is a major factor in contributing. growth of human trafficking and sex trade helps to spread it.
Traveling to countries to participate in the sex industry
HIV/AIDS in Africa
-South Africa is the epicenter of global HIV/AIDS crisis
-rural to urban migration facilitates the spread in south africa
-Nature of sexual relationships: having casual unsafe and absusive sexual relationships. accept multiple partners and engage in unprotected sex, rejecting condoms.
a practice that facilitates the transmutation of AIDS. traditional sexual practice in Africa
100 Percent Condom Program
Thailand's program to protect commercial sex acts through mandatory condom usage especially in brothels
an evangelical charity involved in fighting the spread of HIV/AIDS
Abstinence, Be Faithful, and Use Condoms. Developed in Uganda to fight HIV/ AIDS; stresses abstinence, fidelity, and using condoms
TRIPS (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights)
1994. Allowed states to waive patent protections unilaterally to deal with national emergencies.
UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Program on AIDS)
1996. the leading advocate for global action against HIV/AIDS
-emerged in China 2002
-spread through coughing and sneezing 10-20% may die
person responsible for spreading disease to a large number of individuals
1) prompt identification of people with SARS, their movements and contacts
2) appropriate protection of medical personnel treating these patients
3) isolation of SARS cases
4) exit screening of international travelers
5) timely reporting of information
Global response to SARS
1) fear and uncertainty
2) stronger leadership (WHO)
3) Scientific Advances
4) Heightened awareness of Biological Weapons Threat
5) Concerns about missing another AIDS problem
International Sanitation Conference
Effort to prevent the spread of infectious diseases from developing countries to Europe
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
U.S. organization devoted to preventing and controlling the transmission of infectious diseases into the United States
A conept placing protection of the environment on equal ground with national security
an ancient civilization between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, now known as Iraq
Naturalist who criticized London for its high levels of pollution. 1661.
Contemporary ecological changes vs. earlier periods
1. predominately global
2. now they are biodegenerative products of humanity (air and water pollution, deforestation, overfishing, and soil erosion) vs. before they were biophysical
3. more vulnerable to environmental crises because human activities and government policies
4. ancient societies had more time and space to deal with environmental threats then we do today
Written by Rachel Carson, focused on the negative effects of pesticides on birds and other wildlife.
Oil tanker that crashed off the coast of England in 1967. broughtt attention and support for globalizing environmental issues.
Early environmental problems that were adressed
protected wildlife in Africa and Western Hemisphere, Pacific fur seals, and whaling. Ocean oil pollution and nuclear weapons.
held in 1968; focused on the degradation of the environment from human activities (air and water pollution, deforestation, drainage of wetlands, overgrazing)
UN Conference on Human Environment
held in 1972; aimed at international cooperation in environmental protections
Summit on Sustainable Development
focused simultaneously on economic growth and environmental protections.
states need to cooperate
poltical and economic considerations often weaken the effectiveness of environmental agreements
Factors that influence the implementation and compliance of environmental agreements
1. nature of substances or activities that are regulated
2. characteristic of the agreement
3. global environment
4. domestic factors
NGOs and the Environment
National Wildlife Federation and National Audubon Society are the older groups. participate in global conferences on behalf of small, ecologically vulnerable islands of the Pacific. There are also NGOs that represent industries and try and limit the effectiveness of environmental organizations
Women and the Environment
Women in Kenya (Green Belt Movement: prevents further deforestation and restoration of the land).
1. women are disproportionately disadvantaged by environmental problems
2. gender bias is an impediment to achieving sustainable development
3. women's participation is vital to efforts to achieve sustainable development
Indigenous people and the Environment
lives are intertwined with natural environment, indigenous people have greatly declined because their land is confiscated. many indigenous peole are poor, alcohol abuse is prevalent, and life expectancy is low.
Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation. pays people jot preserve forests, could potentially improve the lives of indigenous peoples
NGOs encounter 3 impediments
1. no common authority or power that can effectively force members to comply
2. decentralization nature of international bureaucracies and their dependence on states make it difficult
3. global agreements and organizations are primarily produced by governments
Strategies used by NGOs
1. Get media coverage
2. Share information among groups in order to educate
3. Lobby government officials
4. Acquire and manage property
5. Pressure companies to protect the environment
The large number and diversity of organisms on Earth. concentrated in forests of developing countries (Brazil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, India etc) Australia is the only developed country that has a large diversity
Crossbreeding of crops
makes them more resistant to disease and pests. especially important for medicinal and pharmaceutical product development
Convention on Biological Diversity
Designed to establish an international regime to protect biodiversity (1991). Provides for 1) national identification and monitoring of biological diversity 2) development of national strategies and programs for conserving biological diversity 3) environment assessment 4) sharing of research findings 5) provision of technology for conservation 6) facilitation of participation in biotechnology research
Refers to the large economic divide between many Northern and Southern states
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
Established to protect the price of whale oil. 1935 they L of N tries to regulate their exploitation. Whales provide a lot of different uses and sell for a lot of money.
Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
convention prohibiting trade in whale products. 1975. IWC agreed to a moratorium on whaling, except done by Inuit of Alaska and Canada, whose diet and culture depends on it.
endangered species, seen to have human qualities through the perception of movies and tv. many killed through commercial fishing of tuna. NGOs encourage tuna companies to adopt dolphin-safe measures.
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)
commission devoted to protecting dolphins, among other things
to eliminate this problem, the U.S. government required strip trawlers to use turtle extruder devices (TEDs) on their nets. fishers were losing tons of their shrimp, giving american fishers a competitive disadvantage.
Tropical area in central Africa. composed of Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, and Equatorial Guinea.
due to the the depletion of forests, biodiversity is decreasing. Air quality, water supplies, climate stability, agricultural productivity, and countless human communities are affected by deforestation.
Causes of Deforestation
-population pressures and poverty. demonstrated by Chiapas (poorest state in Mexico).
-deliberate setting of fires by small farmers, commercial farmers, cattle ranchers, logging companies, and governments to clear areas for grazing/planting
cutting specific trees in order to promote forest sustainability
necessary elements of a stable society
process disrupting sustainable development
Plan for National Integration
Brazil's efforts to encourage the development of the Amazon.
Nossa Natureza Program
Designed to reduce the destruction of the Amazon included: 1) suspending fiscal incentives for development forest resources 2) limited log exports 3) creating national parks, and 4) increasing the emphasis on environmental protection research
Brazillian environmental protection agency
Gabon's Lope Reserve
Area in Gabon containing rich biodiversity. highest density of large animals including elephants and gorillas ever recorded
Green Belt Movement in Kenya
objectives: 1) raising awareness of the connection between the environment and poverty 2) promoting the planting of multi use trees to meet fuel needs, provide employment, protect the environment and provide food for the community 3) disseminating information on environmental protection through research, seminars, and workshops
required in order to protect against deforestation
Forest Stewardship Council
Group of environmentalists and lumber companies dedicated to protecting forests. aimed at 1) protecting forests 2) protecting the rights of indigenous peoples 3) promoting economic development
more people eat seafood. less and less fish remain in the sea
exclusive economic zones
coastal waters exclusive to each state. extend 200 miles where each coastal state can exercise jurisdiction
Law of the Sea Treaty
recognizes state rights over territorial coastal waters
IPMFC International Plan for Management of Fishing capacity
FAO plan to reduce overcapacity in the fishing industry.
seen by many as a bottomless sink used as a dumping ground. Oil spills, development of costal areas, increase of petroleum products, etc. have contributed to pollution of oceans
Oil tanker that spilled off the coast of Alaska. 1989. similar to more recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico 2010 BP. kills marine life
sea water pumped into the bottom of the ship to keep it stable when not loaded with cargo. then water is pumped out when a ship is being loaded and is many times contaminated by water
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea (ICPS)
first international agreement aimed at reducing ocean pollution (1954)
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships (ICPPS)
Limited the discharge amounts of land sea pollutants
Global Warming and Climate Change
Ocean currents change temperatures. Greenhouse gases, deforestation, urbanization, and agricultural activities affect climate
Rise in Earth's temperature from greenhouse gases
U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)
Established to study ozone depletion an dthe greenhouse effect.
toxic rain caused by industrial activities. Those in the U.S. are also a problem for Canada
layer of atmosphere blocking UV radiation. most severe in Antarctica and the Northern Hemisphere. major cause are CFCs (Synthetic products causing ozone depletion)
International agreement on reducing carbon dioxide emmisions
Four main reasons for opposing global effort to reduce emission
1) emission controls will reduce their revenues by decreasing energy consumption 2) imports form industrialized countries would be more expensive because of measures taken to reduce carbon dioxide emissions 3) development of new fuels to help cut down emissions is likely to reduce demand for their exports 4) oil, gas, and coal resources are part of their heritage.
trading of greenhouse gases to reduce climate change
Chicago Climate Exchange
attempts to decree greenhouse gases through a market approach. another approach is to reduce effects of emissions from industries and automobiles.
-many disputes over water (India and Pakistan over Ganges and Brahmaputa rivers)
-Indian people nearly one billion people do not have safe drinking water
-a lack of secure, uninterrupted, long-term availability of adequate clean freshwater
Military Activities and the Environment
-bombs remain unexploded around the world
Environmental security program
pentagon environmental program
South Pacific Nuclear Weapon Free Zone
created in 1985 to reduce the risk of nuclear contamination
Addressed the danger of land mines
Extreme inequality perpetuates poverty and concentration of economic and political power. It strengthens inequality-perpetuating institutions in three ways:
1. Inequality discourages the political participation of poor people. Diminishing their access to education, health care and other services
2. Inequality prevents building of proper functioning of impartial institutions and observance of rule of law
3. Enables wealthy to refuse to compromise politically or economically. Further weakening poor societies.
remain poor and unequal. this traps inhabitants in destructive cycles
Huge inequalities fuel...
resentment, global crime, general disregard for rules, violence, ethnic and regional conflicts, refugees, global drug trade
cause of inequality and poverty is relatively low level of globalization. openness to foreign trade, investments, technology will accelerate economic growth
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
organization focusing on global economic development
globalization is widening the gap between the haves and the have-nots
globalization is a zero-sum game
globalization only benefits rich countries such as the United States.
tide that lifts a few boats while leaving the majority mired to the bottom.
weakens governments commitment to the public sector.
the rich are winning at the expense of the poor
leading financier, philanthropist, and critic of corporate globalization. Believes that globalization drains surplus capital from developing countries to the US.
race to the bottom
labor standards and wages for workers. results in poor being unable to escape poverty
emphasis on integrating poor nations into the global economy diverts resources from more urgent development needs, such as education, public health, industrial capacity, and social cohesion
African Growth and Opportunity Act
Trade agreement to strengthen apparel trade between the U.S. and African states
Europe's economic success
major factor is Freedom of Expression, social values
restrictions on women in china
hampered growth, women in europe were less confined and therefore more integral to industrial development.
Free market and institutionalized property rights
rights to private property protected under the market system. help the economic success of europe
Separating of secular from the religious
another factor for economic success.
the gap between the richest and the poorest countries has widened a great deal in the last 100 years.
Global digital divide
contrast between this ehwo have and those who don't have access to the Internet and other forms of digital communication. access to internet will not automatically fix the issue
Factors that contribute to Inequality
2. colonialism and its legacies
3. the structure of global economy
4. population growth
5. government policies
6. political instability
7. natural disasters
Factors that contribute to Inequality: Geography
Certain characteristics such as tropical regions, or high transportation costs. Southern Hemisphere tend to suffer from being landlocked, which hurts economic equality. lacking physical infrastructure.
essential systems, such as education, roads, and hospitals, needed by nation-states in order to provide necessary public services
Factors that contribute to Inequality: Colonialism
European colonized of Africa, Asia, Latin America laid foundations for disparities. Those that settled have great economic advantages over the indigenous people.
Factors that contribute to Inequality: Structure of the Global Economy
leaders of poor countries believe that governments and multinational corporations in rich countries co-operate to maintain an unfair global economy.
Scottish economist and historic proponent of the capitalist system. Wrote Wealth of Nation
concept that poor countries' over reliance on exports puts them at an economic disadvantage
Factors that contribute to Inequality : Population Growth
Rich countries grew by about 50% while poor countries grew by 250%. Large families perpetuate poverty in most cases
Factors that contribute to Inequality: Government Policies
Saudi Arabia tolerates monopolies to keep the rich rich, Some places emphasize religion instead of science and technology. inadequate investment in the education of women.
Factors that contribute to Inequality Political Instability
Example: Angola- filled with petroleum, diamonds, fish, and fresh water. but for 27 years country was devastated by ethnic conflicts. discourages foreign investment
geographic location directly affects wealth and poverty. natural disasters routinely destroy important economic sectors, increase infrastructure problems, force relocation of large number of people, and lead to greater impoverishment
German thinker who pioneered the theories of socialism and communism.
Social welfare system created in the 1930s to help the poor and restore trust in capitalism and government
greatest degree of income inequality among industrialized countries.
15% live below the poverty line
great spread of unequal income distribution
large difference between urban and rural areas
the income level under which people cannot adequately sustain themselves; a measure of need
poverty stricken rural areas
proposed refuge for wildlife and Native American populations
Mexican native and the world's richest man. In comparison to the 60% of Mexicans that make $15 or less per day
Inequality in poor countries
lack of a large middle class to merge the very rich and very poor.
inequality is extreme
North American Free Trade Agreement: Trade agreement signed by Canada, United States, and Mexico aiming at economic integration under the capitalist system.
"Family Fund" Brazil's model poverty reduction program. Gives financial assistance and helps parents send children to school and give them medical care. Poverty has declined by more than 50% since 2003.
Examples of Legally enforced inequality
Apartheid, Indian caste system, etc.
Laws that legally and forcibly separate people of different ethnic and racial backgrounds. South Africa.
Black Empowerment Initiative
South African government effort to encourage the expansion of black-owned businesses in South Africa after the abolishment of apartheid.
India's Caste System
religiously driven ideology and social system that promote hierarchy and inequality. Hindu. determines status, rights, privileges occupations, and social interactions of each person from birth. One of four castes: Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras.
400 million poor Indians, 43% children under 5 are malnourished, 35% are illiterate
priests and scholars at the top of the caste system
the second-highest group in the caste system includes those in the military, lawmakers, and rulers
the third-highest group in the caste system includes merchants, landowners, industrialists, and artisans
Laborers and farm workers at the bottom of the caste system
outcasts excluded from the caste system.
poorest of the poor are women in all countries
In some countries cultural beliefs and practices make family planning difficult and women have too many children.
gender inequality is decreasing
Beliefs, values, perceptions, and ideas about the roles of men and women and power relations between them.
Indicators of poverty
per capita income, infant mortality rates, access to clean water, illiteracy.
the very poorest of the poor, or those living on less than $1 a day. on the decline.
Factors to take into account to reduce poverty
1. Weak political support for foreign assistance in most rich countries
2. Uncertainty of commitment from World Bank, IMF, WTO, etc.
3. Ongoing armed conflicts that impede efforts to help poor
types of poverty
Absolute Poverty: the absolute number of poor people below the defined poverty line
Relative Poverty: level of poverty based on the society in question
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
released by the U.S. Department of Labor to measure the price of consumer goods and services as well as the rate of inflation.
Six Dimensions of Poverty
2. Psychological Dimensions (powerlessness, dependency, humiliation, and shame)
3. Inadequate Infrastructure
4. Low levels of Literacy
5. Health Problems
6. Inadequate Income
Closing the Gap
1. Education and Family Planning
3. Government Policies and Free Trade
4. Reduce Corruption
5. Pay attention to women
6. Improve Agriculture in Poor Countries
7. Think Small (micro lending)
8. Remittances and Foreign Aid Help
Education and Family Planning
Women's education is directly correlated to amount of kids they have.
analysis of national budgets to determine how spending priorities affect women
Dramatic increase in agricultural production involving hybrids, fast-growing plants, and the use of fertilizer and insecticides
practice of granting small loans to help those who do not have access to conventional financial loan services
Founder of the Grameen Bank micro lending institution