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47 terms

Space Vocabulary

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Seasons
The tilt of the earth causes four different _______.
Eclipse
One celestial body obscures another
Solar System
The sun and its eight planets is called the
Sun
A spherical body that provides heat and light to the solar system and makes up 99% of the mass of the solar system.
Asteroid belt
the region of the solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, where many asteroids are found
Astronomer
a scientist who studies the stars and other objects in the sky
Atmosphere
the mass of air surrounding the Earth
Comet
a balls of ice, rock, and dust in space with a tail and usually originates from the outer solar system.
Equinox
the first day of spring and fall, with equal darkness and sunlight
Hubble Telescope
Large space telescope able to see farther than any other telescope at the end of the 20th century. Called the __________
Lunar eclipse
The blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and moon
Meteor
a meteoroid that burns up in Earth's atmosphere
Meteorite
A Rock from outer space that land on earth
Meteroid
smaller than a astroid and a rocky object orbiting the sun in space
orbit
the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another
Penumbra
partial shadow (in an eclipse)
Phase
the changing shapes in the appearance of the moon
Planet
A large spherical body in space that orbits a star (the sun) and does not produce light of its own
Revolution
The period of time required for the earth to make one complete trip around the sun, measured from one vernal equinox to the next and equal to 365 days,
Satellite
man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon
Solar eclipse
Occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth.
Solstice
changes in season marked by summer the longest day & winter the shortest day
sunspot
an area of gas on the sun's surface that is cooler than the gases around them
Umbra
the fully shaded (excluding all light) inner region of a shadow.
Galaxy
A large collection of Stars, gas and dust that is held together by gravity and contain 100s of billions of stars
Terrestrial
Four planets that orbit nearest to the sun that are all rocky, dense and small are called ____________ Planets
Moon
Smaller bodies that orbit planets. Earth has one and Jupiter has more than 60
Star
A large celestial body composed of gas and emits light and produces heat. Most are made almost entirely of hydrogen and helium.
Light-year
The distance that light travel can travel through space in one year.
Planet Earth
The third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets and the planet with the greatest density of all planets in the solar system
Gravity
the force that attracts a body towards the centre of the earth, or towards any other physical body having mass. All objects in the universe attract one another.
Elliptical Galaxy
A Galaxy that appear like spheres or ovals and do not have arms
Spiral Galaxy
A Galaxy shaped like a pinwheel with a central bulge and with two or more arms extended
Polaris
The north star. It is almost straight above Earth's north pole. It is a giant with 4.5 times the mass of the Sun. It is part of a triple star system.
spring tide
occur when the moon is either new or full and are the highest high tides or lowest low tides
neap tides
occur twice a month when the sun and moon are at right angles to the Earth. The difference between high and low tides is the least.
axis
imaginary line the Earth rotates on
hemisphere
half the Earth
Prime Meridian
an imaginary north-south line that divide the Earth into East-West hemispheres
Tropic of Cancer
horizontal line above or north of the equator
equator
an imaginary eat-west lin through the center of Earth dividing it into 2 hemispheres- north and south
Tropic of Capricorn
imaginary horizontal line below or south of the equator
leap year
a year that has 1 more day than normal (366 days)- occurs every 4 years
summer solstice
when more than half the Northern Hemisphere has light- June 21
winter solstice
when less than half the Norther Hemisphere has light- Dec. 21
vernal equinox
marks the beginning of Spring - March 21- when day and night are equal hours
autumnal equinox
marks the beginning of fall - day and night are equal hours- Sept. 21, 22 or 23

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