7th Midterm Science quizlet

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Terms in this set (...)

golgi body/apparatus
packages and distributes materials from the ER
nucleolus
assembles ribosomes
cell wall
surrounds the cells of plants and gives protection and structure
cell membrane
controls which substances pass into and out of the cell
centriole
helps with cell division in animal cells
chloroplast
captures energy from sunlight and changes it to a form of energy cells can use in making food
cytoplasm
fills the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus to hold the organelles in place
endoplasmic reticulum
has a network of membranes that produces many substances
lysosome
contains substances that break down large food particles
mitochondria (mitochondrion)
converts energy stored in food to energy the cell can use
nucleus
directs all of the cell's activities
ribosome
produces proteins
vacuole
stores water, food, or other materials needed by the cell
organelle
a specific part of the cell that carries out a specific function
cell wall
provides structure and protection to a plant cell
chlorplast
obtains energy from the sun to make energy
cytoplasm
a jelly like substance that helps hold up all the other cells
Animal Cell
A cell containing ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, a vacuole, a nucleus, lysosomes, a cell membrane, mitochondria, and cytoplasm
Plant cell
contains a cell wall, chloroplast and large vacuole
microscope
An instrument with lenses and light that is used to observe objects too small to be visible with only the eyes.
arm
Used to support the microscope when carried and supports the body tube
stage clips
Holds the slide in place
fine adjustment knob
Moves the stage slightly to sharpen the image
eyepiece
You look through to see the specimen
diaphragm
Used to regulates the amount of light on the specimen
base
Supports the microscope
stage
Supports the slide being viewed
objective lenses
Magnification ranges from 4x to 40x
light source
Projects light upwards through the diaphragm, the specimen, and the lenses
coarse adjustment knob
Moves the stage up and down for focusing
revolving nosepiece
Holds the high and low power objectives, can be rotated to change magnification
Eubacteria
true bacteria found many places
Archaebacteria
ancient bacteria found in extreme environments
Protista
eukaryotic, cannot be classified as plant, fungus, or animal (slime mold, paramecium)
Fungi
eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophs, includes yeast and mushrooms
Plantae
eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophs, provide food for heterotrophs
Animalia
eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophs, includes humans
Heterotroph
term that means having to get energy from another source (cannot make their own food)
Autotroph
term that means able to make their own food
Unicellular
term that means composed of one cell
Multicellular
term that means composed of many cells
Eukaryotic
term that means contains a nucleus
Prokaryotic
term that means does not contain a nucleus
Kingdom Animalia
all eukaryotic, all multicellular, all heterotrophs, reproduce sexually (some regenerate asexually)
Kingdom Plantae
all eukaryotic, all multicellular, all autotrophs, can reproduce sexually or asexually
Domains Bacteria and Archaea
domains that are all prokaryotic, all unicellular
Domain Eukarya
domain that all have a nucleus
Kingdom Archae
prokaryotic, unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments
Kingdom Protista
"junk drawer" of kingdoms; all are eukaryotes, most are unicellular, and can be animal, plant, or fungus-like
Kingdom Fungi
all eukaryotic, all heterotrophs, most multicellular, cell wall made of chitin, can reproduce asexually or sexually
domains
highest level of taxonomic groups (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya)
taxonomy
classifies organisms by their structure, function, and relationships
A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
sexual reproduction
requires two parents, genetic material comes from both parents
asexual reproduction
requires one parent, identical offspring
heterotroph
cannot make its own food (must get energy from other organisms)
autotroph
able to make its own food
multicellular
more than one cell
unicellular
one cell
eukaryotic
contains a nucleus
prokaryotic
does not have a nucleus
osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
hypertonic solution
when a cell is placed in a solution and the concentration of the solute outside of the cell is higher than it is inside
hypotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
gradient
the difference in concentration between two solutions on either side of a semipermeable membrane
solute
Substance being dissolved
solvent
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances (water is the universal solvent)
cell
Basic unit of life
tissue
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
organ
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system
Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
organism
An individual living thing
Hooke
Scientist who examined cork through a microscope, coined the term "cell"
Leuwenhoek
Improved the microscope and viewed "animalcules," and bacteria
Schwann
Proposed different types of animal cells and proposed that all animals are made of cells
Virchow
Proposed that all living cells come from other cells
Schleiden
Discovered that plants are made of cells
Levels of Organization (least to most complex)
cell --> tissue --> organ --> organ system --> organism
microscope
Technology was essential for the development of the cell theory
Cell Theory Part 1 (Hooke and Leuwenhoek)
All living things are composed of cells
Cell Theory Part 2 (Schwann & Schleiden)
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of living things
Cell Theory Part 3 (Virchow)
All cells come from existing cells

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