ecology chapter 3,4,5,6
Terms in this set (43)
the study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment (surroundings)
portions of the planet where all life exists
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities
collection of all living and nonliving organisms that live in a particular place
different populations that live together in a defined area
groups or individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
chemical energy that produces carbohydrates in absence of light
eat plants and animals
break down organic matter
1st producers 2nd consumers 3rd omnivores and carnivores
when a nutrient is is in short supply it can limit an organisms ecosystem growth
physical or nonliving factors
living organisms within an ecosystem
occupation of organism
any relationship between two species that live closely together
one organism benefits and the other is not helped or harmed
first species to populate an area (lichens)
predation (predator and prey)
when one organism feeds on another (organism that does the eating, organism that gets eaten)
when both organisms benefit from the association
the parasite benefits at the expense of the host (+,-)
if a population is protected has a lot of food and no disease it will multiply and increase (j shape curve)
as resources become less available, the growth of a population stops or slows (S- shaped curve)
a limiting factor
a factor that causes population growth to slow or stop
density dependent factors
a limiting factor that depends on population size
competition: organisms struggle for resources
predation: predator prey relationship controls population
parasitism and disease: controls pop by weakening host
density independent factors
affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population size
-human activities (damming rivers/ clearing forests)
scientists study human populations including birth rates, death rates, and age structure to predict birth rates
the sum of the total variety of organisms in the biosphere
some believe it's caused by natural variations in climate other believe it's caused by human activities and adding carbon dioxide (through fossil fuel burning and deforestation) this heats the ocean and can kill some speciesism and cause flooding
A feeding hierarchy in which organisms in an ecosystem are grouped into trophic (nutritional) levels and are shown in a succession to represent the flow of food energy and the feeding relationships between them.
Shows one path of energy flow
eats other organisms to gain energy
a concept that all the predator-prey interactions in a community are interrelated, and are sometimes drawn in a web-like image.
Show multiple paths of energy flow
makes its own food or energy
(of a substance) become concentrated inside the bodies of living things.
the synthesis of organic compounds by bacteria or other living organisms using energy derived from reactions involving inorganic chemicals, typically in the absence of sunlight.
a microbially facilitated process of nitrate reduction (performed by a large group of heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria) that may ultimately produce molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
where an organism lives
a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
the number of people, other living organisms, or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation.
measurement of population per unit area or unit volume
the action of coming to live permanently in an ecosystem
the action of leaving an ecosystem to live somewhere else