18 terms

Industrial Revolution Part 1 Cornell Notes


Terms in this set (...)

What are the definitions of industrial, revolution, and industrial revolution?
Industrial - having to do with industry, business or manufacturing
Revolution - a huge change or a change in the way things are done
Industrial revolution - a change from making by hand to making them in factories (machines make them
Why was there a population explosion during this era? (2 slides)
Famine, War, Disease, New innovations, Stricter quarantine measures, the elimination of the black rat.
Advances in medicine, such an inoculation against smallpox; improvements in sanitation promoted better public health; an increase in food supply meant fewer famines and epidemics, especially as transportation improved.
What was the Enclosure Movement?
What were the Pros and Cons of this movement?
In the second half of the 17th century, the English gentry (landowners) passes the Enclosure Acts, prohibiting peasants' access to common lands.
Pros: more productive farms; increase in Food Production; Poor farmers could work on larger farms.
Cons: Lack of work = poverty; Many poor farmer had to give up land to wealthy landowners and move to cities.
Who invented the Threshing Machine?
Why was it important?
Scottish mechanical engineer Andre Meikle invented the threshing machine. Separated the grain from the stalks and husks far more quickly than hand threshing.
We get food faster
Who founded the Four-Field System?

Why was it important?
In 1730, charles 'turnip townshend introduces the doubt-frills method of crop rotation.
Crips rotation in important because consistency is important because consistent planting of the same ceip on a wild lead to a decline in importance souls nutrients, thus decreasing crop yields
Who founded Selective Breeding?
Why was it important?
Introduced by Robert Bakewell in 1769
Selected animals with the best characteristics
Produces bigger breeds
What are reasons Great Britain thrived during this time?
- Plentiful iron and coal
- A navigable river system
- A stable political system
- Colonies that supplied raw materials and bought finish goods
- A government that encouraged a movement that encouraged improvements in transportation and used its navy to protect British trade
What is the Domestic or "Putting Out" system?
the textile industry was the most important in the 18th century England
Most of the work was done in the home
Employers would "put out" the materials for home-based workers to manufacture into finished products
Who invented the Spinning Jenny?
Why was it important?
In 1764 the inventor James Hargreaves built a machine that became known as the spinning jenny (or spinning frame)
The machine used eight spindles with a single wheel that allowed the operator to spin eight threads at once.
Who invented the Water Frame?
How did the Water Frame improve the Spinning Jenny?
The spinning jenny was to difficult to be operated by hand so inventor Richard Arkwright sought another was to run the machine.
- The water wheel used running water from England's streams for power
Who invented the first steam engine?
What was it used to do?
Thomas Newcomen
His steam engine pumped water out of a mine
Why was James Watt's steam engine remembered in history?
In 17623, Watt modified the engine by adding a condensed that increases the machine's efficiency
The engine was so successful that for a hundred years no drastic alterations were made to the design
Why is George Stephenson's Rocket important?
In 1829, George Stephenson's Rocket was the first steam locomotive practical for pulling rolling stock (strain cars)
Why was the Liverpool and Manchester Railway important?
What happen after the success of the Railway?
In 103- the first widely used steam train esd the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. The L&M incited a boom in the railway building for the next 20 years. By the 1054, every moderately-sized town in England was connected by rail.
Who invented the Telegraph?
Why was it important?
Invented in 1844, the telegraph was a major breakthrough in communications, allowing people to get news far more quickly about events taking place thousands of miles away
Who invented the Steam Powered Water Transport?
Why was it important?
In 1807, Robert Fulton attached a steam engine to a ship called the "Claremont." the steam engine propelled the ship by making it paddle wheel turn.
How did Henry Bessemer's invention fuel the growth of cities?
In 1858, Henry bessemer invented a new type of furnace called the Bessemer converter.
The machine produces high-quality steel; at half the price of earlier methods.
It fueled the growth of urban centers and multi story buildings that required steel structuring.
Who invented the Seed Drill?
Why was it important?
Englishmen Jethro Tull invented the mechanized seed drill around 1701.
Uniform seedlings allowed weeding between the rows of seedlings during growth, thus improving, crop yield
Jethro Tull's simple tool made him an icon and a hero for small farmers in his era and today