61 terms

NTD309 - Chapter 2

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Terms in this set (...)

childbearing years
15-44
fertility
the actual production of children
fecundity
the biological capacity to bear children
subfertility
the ability to become pregnant, but inability to sustain it; abnormally shaped, slow, or low count of sperm
what is the idea behind menopausal babies?
women release many more eggs at one time at older ages
what is the initiator of the menstrual cycle, and what does it do?
estrogen sends a message to the hypothalamus
what does the hypotalamus do?
tells the pituitary gland to release GnRH
what does GnRH stand for?
gonadotropin releasing hormone
what does GnRH do?
releases FSH and LH
what does FSH stand for?
follicle stimulating hormone
what does FSH do?
tells eggs to mature/grow in the follicles of the ovary
what does LH stand for?
luteinizing hormone
what does LH do?
stimulates estrogen and progesterone to signal uterus to increase nutrients, glycogen stores, etc. to prepare for the fertilized egg; the peak levels of these hormones induce ovulation around day 14
what does the stimulation of estrogen and progesterone do?
sends a message back to the hypothalamus to stop releasing GnRH in case of fertilization
chronic undernutrition
does not really impact fertility, but it does impact the health of the baby
acute undernutrition
impacts fertility due to a dramatic drop in weight over a short period of time, messing up hormone levels and, therefore, the menstrual cycle; will recover when weight goes back up
what's the general rule to know if you're fertile or not, regardless of body weight?
if you get a normal, regular period without the use of birth control pills, you're fine
anovolutary
having an irregular cycle
amennorhea
not having a cycle for three or more months
what has changed in our knowledge of fat?
we used to think it was just storage, but now we know that visceral fat is active
visceral fat
abdominal fat that gives off regulators, estrogen, androgens, and leptin
what are the three things that leptin does?
decreases hunger, increases the desire for physical activity and metabolism, decreases GnRH
why doesn't the release of leptin lead to weight loss?
it also gives off eicosanoids which increase inflammation, that triggers C-Reactive Protein to be released, which binds to leptin and renders it ineffective
what upper level of % body fat impacts fertility?
30%
for men, what % weight loss in a short amount of time impacts fertility?
10-15%
impaired fertility is related to these dietary components:
vegetarianism, low fat intake, high dietary fiber intakes, soy, caffeine, and alcohol
PCOS stands for
polycystic ovary syndrome
what is pcos?
a common endocrine and reproductive disorder of pre-menopausal women
what is the current prevalence weight of women who have pcos?
10% (1 in 10 women)
pcos is characterized by
hyperandrogenism (elevated testosterone), polycystic ovaries, infertility, insulin resistance
what is the number one cause of infertility in the u.s.?
pcos
the endrocrine system
a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone to regulate the body
what is considered the stress center of the body?
the adrenal glands
what are the major components of the endocrine system?
hypothalamus, pituitary glands, pineal gland, thyroid and parathyroid glands, thymus, breasts, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, ovaries, and adipose tissue
other complications of pcos
acne, irregular/absent/heavy periods, hirsuitism, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans, hypothyroid, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and endometrial cancer
hirsuitism
excess hair
alopecia
male-patterned baldness
acanthosis nigricans
darkening of the skin that can almost look furry
what puts pcos women at an increased risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes?
central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistence with hyperinsulinemia, elevated blood pressure, metabolic syndrome
what is the waist circumference that increases your risk for metabolic syndrome?
W: 35in., M: 40in.
why does insulin resistance impact pcos and fertility?
high insulin levels stimulate the ovaries to produce more androgens, which suppresses FSH and egg maturation, and elevates LH and estrogen and progesterone, which lowers GnRH and cycles back
how is pcos diagnosed?
two of the following criteria: irregular or no periods, blood tests or clinical signs of androgens, or cysts surrounding ovaries
why is pcos rarely diagnosed?
often times women exhibit only one of the symptoms plus many other symptoms (like insulin resistance) that aren't taken into account during diagnosis; also, women can be embarrassed by excess hair and not mention it to their doctors
what are ovary cysts?
immature follicles
the two types of iron in the body
ferrous and ferric
roles of iron in the body
works with enzymes in red-ox reactions (metabolism), part of building amino acids, collagen, hormones, and neurotransmitters;
hemoglobin
the oxygen-carrying protein of the red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body
the two food forms of iron
heme and nonheme
heme iron is found in
animal foods
nonheme iron is found in
plant and animal products
which type of food iron is best absorbed?
heme
which type of food iron is consumed in most abundance?
nonheme iron
why is more iron needed for women of child bearing years?
women lose a lot during menstruation
why is more iron needed for pregnant women?
it has to increase to support the extra blood volume, growth of the fetus, and blood loss during delivery
insufficient folate during pregnancy increases the risk for
neural tube defects
what are some nutritional effects of oral contraceptives?
higher HDL, higher LDL, higher risk of blood clots, decreased b12, decreased copper
what are some nutritional effects of contraceptive injections?
weight gain, higher LDL, lower HDL, lower bone density
what are some nutritional effects of contraceptive implants?
weight gain
hyperinsulinemia
the result of insult resistance; too much insulin in the blood
ways to treat insulin resistance
oral contraceptives, testosterone blocking drugs, insulin lowering medications, diet, exercise, 5-10% weight loss
nutrition guidelines (suggestions) for pcos
eat a variety of foods, avoid sweetened beverages, eat every 3-5 hours, eat consistent carbs daily, avoid refined carbs or simple sugars, eat lean protein and omega-3 fats, avoid trans and saturated fats and omega-6 fats