what is the number one cause of infertility in the u.s.?
the endrocrine system
a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone to regulate the body
what is considered the stress center of the body?
the adrenal glands
what are the major components of the endocrine system?
hypothalamus, pituitary glands, pineal gland, thyroid and parathyroid glands, thymus, breasts, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, ovaries, and adipose tissue
other complications of pcos
acne, irregular/absent/heavy periods, hirsuitism, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans, hypothyroid, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and endometrial cancer
darkening of the skin that can almost look furry
what puts pcos women at an increased risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes?
central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistence with hyperinsulinemia, elevated blood pressure, metabolic syndrome
what is the waist circumference that increases your risk for metabolic syndrome?
W: 35in., M: 40in.
why does insulin resistance impact pcos and fertility?
high insulin levels stimulate the ovaries to produce more androgens, which suppresses FSH and egg maturation, and elevates LH and estrogen and progesterone, which lowers GnRH and cycles back
how is pcos diagnosed?
two of the following criteria: irregular or no periods, blood tests or clinical signs of androgens, or cysts surrounding ovaries
why is pcos rarely diagnosed?
often times women exhibit only one of the symptoms plus many other symptoms (like insulin resistance) that aren't taken into account during diagnosis; also, women can be embarrassed by excess hair and not mention it to their doctors
what are ovary cysts?
the two types of iron in the body
ferrous and ferric
roles of iron in the body
works with enzymes in red-ox reactions (metabolism), part of building amino acids, collagen, hormones, and neurotransmitters;
the oxygen-carrying protein of the red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body
the two food forms of iron
heme and nonheme
heme iron is found in
nonheme iron is found in
plant and animal products
which type of food iron is best absorbed?
which type of food iron is consumed in most abundance?
why is more iron needed for women of child bearing years?
women lose a lot during menstruation
why is more iron needed for pregnant women?
it has to increase to support the extra blood volume, growth of the fetus, and blood loss during delivery
insufficient folate during pregnancy increases the risk for
neural tube defects
what are some nutritional effects of oral contraceptives?
eat a variety of foods, avoid sweetened beverages, eat every 3-5 hours, eat consistent carbs daily, avoid refined carbs or simple sugars, eat lean protein and omega-3 fats, avoid trans and saturated fats and omega-6 fats