Pharmacology Exam 2
Terms in this set (54)
defined as abnormal motor control which is usually characterized as cogwheel rigidity, pill rolling tremor, festination type gait. In other words lack of a dampening of muscle contractions.
A drug used for treatment since there is a decrease in dopamine and dopamine will not cross the blood brain barrier. It is broken down into dopamine by natural catalytic reaction in the brain and periphery. To decrease the amount of levodopa converted in the periphery, Carbidopa is also administered
Timing of Physical Therapy treatments
Essential based on medication timing
Ending of Levodopa medication dose
Akinesia results when the effectiveness of the Levodopa wears off prior to the next dose.
Decrease in Dopamine influence in the Basal Ganglia
An increase in influence of Acetylcholine and the resultant akinesia. Treatment for these abnormal movements can be accomplished by administration of anticholinergic drugs and levodopa.
Side effects of Levodopa
Psychotic symptoms, postural hypotension, dyskinesia
Other medication used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's
MAO-B inhibitors and Dopamine agonist agents.
Innervated by sympathetic neurons and secretes small amounts of norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood stream during normal conditions. During stress, there is an increase to above the normal amount usually released.
General Anesthetic Properties
Inhibition of sensory and autonomic reflexes
Produce amnesia for time during administration.
Cause a loss of consciousness and sensation
Injection intravenously has the advantage of rapid onset and disadvantage of control over level of anesthesia
Skeletal neuromuscular junction blockers are given with general anesthesia so that a lower dose of general anesthesia can be delivered while still ensuring muscle paralysis.
Stages of General Anesthesia
Analgesia without amnesia
Local Anesthetics Administration (taken)
Transdermal (for minor surface irritation and injury)
Direct Injection (subarachnoid, epidermal space)
Direct into tissue (nerve block, or dentistry)
Oral (swallowed, lidocaine swallowed for sore throat)
Inhibition of local anesthetics
inhibit action potential propagation along neuronal axons by blocking the opening of sodium channels.
Uses of local anesthetics
Used to treat sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS), by administering the drug near the sympathetic chain ganglia that innervate the affected limb.
Absorption of local anesthetics:
into central circulation can cause respiratory depression.
acts as a muscle relaxant by increasing the inhibitory effect of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on alpha motor neuron activity in the brain.
Long term use of Diazepam
may lead to tolerance
Side effects of Diazepam
Drowsiness and Ataxia
Also used to treat spasticity, it is a toxin which causes a temporary paralysis of the muscle it is injected into.
Muscles directly injected with Botulism
Will be paralyzed for approximately 3 months
Long term use of Botulism
to decrease facial wrinkles is unknown, however, preliminary reports seem to indicate that permanent paralysis may result.
are also known as narcotics because they tend to have sedative or sleep-inducing side effects.
High doses of Opioids leads to
a state of unreponsiveness and stupor.
Opium comes from
The bud of the poppy.
Common complaint of Opioid medication
Patients under the influence of Opioid drugs exhibit:
Pinpoint pupils and may experience decreased respirations, postural hypotension, and ataxia.
Abruptly stopping opioid medications results in:
Symptoms of drowsiness, sweating, sneezing, and shivering.
Overdose of Opioid drugs are treated with:
Opioid antagonist drug naloxone (Narcan®) which blocks all opioid receptors
Common effect of NSAIDS
high-incidence of GI discomfort, decreased blood clotting by inhibiting platelet aggregation (anticoagulation), relieve mild-to-moderate pain (analgesia), and anti-inflammatory
decrease the risk for cardiovascular events (cardioprotective), and has been indicated in decreasing risk of colon cancer.
Acetaminophen and aspirin are frequently interchanged and considered similar
in pain relief
Acetaminophen and aspirin are frequently interchanged and considered different by:
Acetaminophen does not have a significant anti-inflammatory effect.
Aspirin should not be used
to treat fever in children due to increased risk of Reye syndrome
NSAIDs exert their therapeutic effect
inhibits the cyclooxygenase enzyme and interfering with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins.
Anti-inflammatory steroids (glucocorticoids), such as prednisone used for
controlling inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Prolonged use of large doses of Anti-inflammatory steroids (prednisone)
can cause hypertension, osteoporosis, and diabetes mellitus.
Early and aggressive use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs
may slow the progression of rheumatoid (RA) in many patients before there is extensive damage to affected joints.
considered the drug of choice in mild-to-moderate Osteoarthritis (OA)
Treatment of Osteoarthritis
should be more focused on early intervention with physical therapy than medications.
Will aid in healing of articular cartilage
Supplemental glucosamine and chondroitin
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is commonly:
given to bring the medication up to therapeutic levels.
usually used to maintain a low level of medication while the patient is sleeping or not self-administering a dose
given when the patient pushes the PCA button to administer dose
minimum amount of time between each dose
Preganglionic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are said to be
Cholinergic in nature because of the presence of ACh at their synapses.
Two primary subcategories of andrenergic receptors
Alpha and Beta receptors
A drug that affects nicotinic cholinergic receptors will affect
Activity in both divisions of the ANS
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located at:
The junction between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons release
norepinephrine which binds to adrenergic receptors.
Indirect-acting cholinergic stimulants (donepezil)
increases the activity at cholinergic synapses by inhibiting Dopa Decaboxylase enzyme
Anticholinergic drugs cause
adverse effects of constipation and blurred vision
Anticholinergic drug overdose
produces toxic central nervous system effects: delirium, hallucinations, and a coma.
Cholinergic antagonist drugs may be used
In the treatment of motion sickness, overactive urinary bladder, and Parkinson's disease
Cholinergic stimulants may be helpful in improving:
Cognition and memory during the early stages of Alzheimer's.