The series of related events that make up a narrative, purposes are to convey meaning and to provide an enjoyable or moving reading experience.
A struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions within a single character.
To provide a time and place for the characters and events, • To aid in the understanding of characters and their actions, To create atmosphere, To facilitate plot development (to develop conflict)
four functions of setting
Turning point of the plot, where the protagonist changes or has an opportunity to change but does not. From this point, the outcome is determined.
plotless short story
In some modern fiction, plot has a relatively minor function. These works may focus instead on characterization and point of view.
Showing, less direct, more time-consuming. The reader has to exercise her own judgment, putting clues together to figure out what a character is like, characterization
By describing how a character looks and dresses, By letting the reader hear the character speak, By showing the character's actions, By revealing the character's private thoughts and feelings, By showing how other characters feel or behave toward the character
Methods of dramatic characterization
Central character the reader focuses on; the person whose conflict sets the plot in motion.
A character that has more dimensions to his/her personality; he/she is complex and multi-faceted, like a real person
A character who is not well-developed, but rather one-dimensional; he/she has limited personality traits
A character who is used as a contrast to another character; the contrast emphasizes the differences between the two characters, bringing out the distinctive qualities in each.
The narrator describes the reader's actions, using the personal pronoun "you." This point of view is rare.
The narrator in the dramatic point of view reports events in a way that is analogous to a motion-picture camera, or to what some call "a fly on the wall." An impartial report.
The narrator is outside the story, a god-like observer who can tell the reader what all the characters are thinking and feeling, as well as what is happening anywhere in the story.
The narrator is outside the story, but tells the story from the vantage point of only ONE character; the narrator can enter the mind of this chosen character but cannot tell what any other characters are thinking except by observation
The central idea, message, or insight of a work of literature; most are implied rather than directly stated
Must be a complete declarative sentence, Must state a significant, general truth about life, people, human nature, or the world, Must clearly be brought out in the work
Guidelines for stating theme
The attitude a writer takes toward the reader, a subject, or a character; tone is conveyed through the writer's choice of words and details, nostalgic; factual; bitter; passionate.
A concrete thing, place, or event (more rarely, a person) that stands both for itself and for something abstract beyond itself
When the reader or audience knows something important that a character in a story or drama does not know
A play on the multiple meanings of a word, or on two words that sound alike but have different meanings
A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination.
a brief, personal poem that is especially musical and filled with emotion; sonnets, odes, and elegies are types
A fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in iambic pentameter, that has one of several rhyme schemes (Shakespeare's has three quatrains followed by a couplet; the most common rhyme scheme for this is abab cdcd efef gg
Two dissimilar things are compared WITHOUT using words such as "like," "as," "than," or "resembles"
a metaphor that has become so overused that we no longer realize that is a figure of speech—we simply skip over the metaphorical connection it makes.
The inconsistent mixture of two or more metaphors; a common problem in bad writing, and they can often be unintentionally funny
Exaggeration for the sake of effect, for emphasis, not to be taken literally; overstatement.
The repetition of consonant sounds that are NOT at the beginning of words in a line of verse, Come live with me and be my love.
The similarity or repetition of vowel sounds in two or more words with different consonant sounds
The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at definite intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza
A group of consecutive lines in a poem that form a single unit; a division of a poem that is often referred to as a "paragraph of poetry"
(approximate or slant or off rhyme) involves words that sound similar, but are not exactly the same
The pattern or sequence in which end rhyme occurs throughout a poem. The first end sound is represented with an "a," the second end sound is represented with a "b," and so on. When the first sound is repeated at the end of another line within the poem, it is also designated as "a."
The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in words in a line of poetry; may be regular or irregular
A unit of meter, usually containing one stressed syllable and one or two or unstressed syllables; lines of poetry are classified according to the number of feet in a line
The process of marking lines of poetry to show the type of feet and the number of feet they contain
A two syllable foot with the stress on the second syllable; the most common foot of the English language, unstressed stressed
Two unstressed syllables; this type of foot is rare and is found in between other types of feet