68 terms

7th Grade Civics - 1st Semester Review Terms

Connection Cards Terms from Louise Ball/Marie DiRito from Broward County Social Studies Department
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Baron De Montesquieu
View "separation of power"
Founding Fathers used his views when writing the Constitution.
He described the separation of political power among a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary
John Locke
He wrote that government is morally obligated to serve people, namely by protecting their natural rights of life, liberty, and property.
Think-Declaration of Independence
John Locke "Social Contract"
A social contract is the belief that the state only exists to serve the will of the people.
He believed when government violates individual rights, people were obligated to rebel.
Think - Declaration of Independence/American Revolution
Magna Carta (1215)
First document to limit the powers of the king - signed in 1215.
Citizens could not be deprived of life, liberty or property without a lawful judgment of their peers or by law of the land.
Represented by the fifth amendment.
English Bill of Rights (1689)
Established freedom from taxation without representation, outlawed cruel and unusual punishment, guaranteed the right to bear arms, and many other rights.
Many of these same rights are included in the U.S. Constitution.
Mayflower Compact (1620)
First document to establish self-government in the colonies.
Signed before the passengers left the ship, The Mayflower, to settle in Plymouth Colony.
Common Sense (Thomas Paine)
Pamphlet encouraging colonists to demand their rights as citizens and support independence for the colonies.
Ideas are echoed in the Declaration of Independence.
Self-Government
Government or control of a country by its own members rather than by members of a different country.
Declaration of Independence
Statement of American ideals -role of government is to protect their natural rights (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) - adopted July 4, 1776.
Also listed grievances against the king. Colonists were angry over being taxed without their consent (no taxation without representation).
Articles of Confederation
First form of government for America.
Many Weaknesses:
Only had a Congress where 9 out of the 13 states had to agree.
No executive or judicial branch (power to enforce or interpret laws).
States had the majority of the power.
Country in debt - no way to raise money.
Preamble to the Constitution
Introduction to the U.S. Constitution, establishing the goals and purposes of government.
"We the People" = government depends on the people for its power and exists to serve them.
Sets up the six goals of government.
Constitutional Government
Any government whose authority and construction are defined by a constitution.
Separation of Powers
Powers of government are divided among three branches of government: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.
Limits the power of government.
Montesquieu (French philosopher) believed this was a way to ensure liberty.
Checks and Balances
Each governmental branch has powers to limit (check) the other branches.
Keeps the balance of power relatively equal between the branches.
Montesquieu (French philosopher) believed this was a way to ensure liberty.
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution who believe a strong national government is needed to keep the country united.
Published the Federalist Papers to gain support for the Constitution.
Anti-
Federalists
Feared a strong federal government as created by the Constitution.
Did not believe it would protect states' rights nor people's freedom.
As the Constitution is ratified, they push for a "Bill of Rights" to protect individual liberties.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution - details the specific freedoms that belong to each American citizen.
Rule of Law
No one is above the law.
Foundation of liberty in the United States and it protects us from tyranny; Constitution = limited government.
Citizenship
As defined by the 14th Amendment: all who are born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States and of the state they reside in.
Naturalization
Legal process through which immigrants become U.S. citizens.
Must be at least 18 years old, have a background check showing "good moral character", be fingerprinted, and pass tests on civics, U.S. history, and English
Must take Oath of Allegiance to the United States.
First Amendment
Protects five freedoms: religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Second Amendment
Protects the right to bear arms.
Third Amendment
No soldiers will be quartered (housed) without the consent of the owners during times of peace.
Also protects home-owners during times of war (unless required by law).
Fourth Amendment
Protects against unreasonable search and seizures without a warrant or probable cause.
Fifth Amendment
1. Before being tried for a serious crime a grand jury must indict (formally accuse) the person of the crime.
2. Protects against being tried for the same criminal offense twice.
3. Protects against self-incrimination.
4. Cannot be deprived of rights without due process of the law.
5. Allows for eminent domain.
Sixth Amendment
Right to a prompt and public trial decided by a jury.
A person must be informed of the charges against them.
Can hear and question all witnesses, and have their own witnesses.
Right to legal counsel (attorney). (Supreme Court interpreted this to mean the government will provide one if you cannot afford it).
Seventh Amendment
In cases involving money or property over $20, the right to a trial by jury is preserved.
Eighth Amendment
Protects against excessive bail and fines.
Protects against cruel and unusual punishments.
Ninth Amendment
There are rights reserved to the people that are not listed in the Constitution.
Refers to the natural rights of people.
Also called unenumerated rights - those not spelled out in the Constitution.
Tenth Amendment
Powers that are not reserved to the federal government nor prohibited to the states belong to the states or the people.
Limits the power of the federal government.
Suffrage
The right of voting.
Double Jeopardy
The act of putting a person through a second trial for an offense for which he or she has already been prosecuted or convicted.
Prohibited by the Fifth Amendment.
Due Process
The government has to follow rules and established procedures in everything it does.
This protection helps to ensure justice.
Contained in the Fifth Amendment.
Eminent Domain
Government power to take private property for public use without the owner's consent.
The Fifth Amendment requires the payment of just compensation to the owner.
"Pleading the Fifth"
A person's refusal to answer a question on the ground that the answer might incriminate the person.
The right to this refusal is protected by the Fifth Amendment.
Appellate Process
The process to have a higher court review the result of a trial court or lower court.
The Supreme Court is mainly an Appeals Court
Ex Post Facto
Latin for "after the fact."
Laws adopted after an act is committed making it illegal although it was legal when done, or increases the penalty for a crime after it is committed.
Such laws are specifically prohibited by the U.S. Constitution.
Lobbyist
A person paid to represent an interest group's viewpoint.
Lobbying
Seeking to influence a politician or public official on an issue.
Bias
An attitude that always favors one way of feeling or acting over any other.
Not always obvious.
Symbolism
The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities.
Used often in political campaigns to sway voters.
Propaganda
Ideas used to influence people's thinking or behavior.
Used often in political campaigns to sway voters.
Domestic Policy
An area of public policy which concerns laws, government programs, and administrative decisions which are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders.
Foreign Policy
A country's plan for dealing with other countries of the world.
Direct Democracy
Type of government in which the power to govern lies directly in the hands of the people rather than being exercised through their representatives.
Representative Democracy
Type of government in which the people elect representatives to carry on the work of the government for them.
The United States is one.
Also called a republic.
Oligarchy
Type of government in which all power belongs to a small group of people.
Socialism
Economic system where working people own and control the means of production and distribution through democratically-controlled public agencies, cooperatives, or other collective groups.
There are many varieties.
Communism
The economic and political system in which the government owns the means of production and decides what will be produced.
Monarchy
Type of government having a ruler who inherits the position, may rule for life, and holds powers varying from very limited to total.
Autocracy
Type of government where one person has unlimited power.
North Korea is an example.
Absolute Monarchy
Type of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his people.
Republic
Type of government in which the people elect representatives to carry on the work of the government for them.
The United States is one.
Also called a representative democracy.
Parliamentary System of Government
A system of democratic government in which the executive branch is held accountable to the legislature (parliament).
The executive and legislative branches are interconnected.
Federal System of Government
A system of government that divides the powers of government between the national (federal) government and state and local governments.
The United States is a federal government.
Confederal System of Government
A system of government where the states have the power and the national government is weak.
Think: Articles of Confederation
Unitary System of Government
A system of government where power is almost entirely centralized in a national government. Power is allowed to local governments only for the sake of convenience (such as garbage collection times or issuing parking tickets).
Many countries (but not the U.S.) have this system of government.
Legislative Branch
Branch of the government, created by Article I in the Constitution, that makes the laws.
Is bicameral with the House of Representatives and Senate.
Delegated powers include: collecting taxes, borrowing money, coining money, punishing counterfeiters, regulating trade, granting copyrights and patents, making immigration law, forming the federal court system, punishing piracy, declaring war, funding and regulating armed forces, forming and arming militias, establishing the postal service, and creating Washington D.C., and to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper.
House of Representatives
One part of the Legislative Branch.
Has 435 elected members -number of representatives for each state depends on that state's population.
Any appropriations (spending money) bill must start in this chamber.
Senate
One part of the Legislative Branch.
Has 100 elected members with each state having two senators.
Has special powers: all impeachment trials held in the Senate, all treaties must be approved with a 2/3 vote, and all appointed high officials (like Supreme Court justices) must be approved with a majority vote.
Executive Branch
Branch of the government, created by Article II in the Constitution, in charge with enforcing the laws.
The President is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, and also has the power to make treaties. Yet, only Congress can declare war, and the Senate must approve any treaty with a 2/3 vote.
Judicial Branch
Branch of the government, created by Article III in the Constitution, in charge of handling disagreements over the law.
Is made up of the Supreme Court, Lower Courts, and Special Courts.
Amendment Process
2 ways to propose a new amendment:
2/3 vote in both houses of Congress; 2/3 of states can ask Congress for a national convention to propose a new amendment
2 ways to ratify a new amendment: 3/4 of state legislatures; 3/4 of special state conventions approve it
Takes a long time and it is not easy to gain approval and ratify a new amendment.
Government
The system by which a state or community is controlled
Political Party
A group of people who come together for elections and hold power in the government. They agree on similar policies & programs
Society
People living together in a more or less ordered community:
Party Platform
A list of the values & actions which are supported by a political party or individual candidate
Political System
A system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems