APES Chapter 6
Terms in this set (61)
A group of a specific species living in a certain area.
The single member of a population that is responsible to reproduce and survive.
The group of species and their interactions in a certain area.
The study of factors that influence population dynamics.
equation for population size
The total number of members of a population.
The number of members of a population per unit of area.
How members of a population are spread out through their ecosystem.
Populations being distributed with no clear pattern.
Populations being distributed with each member being equal distance away from each other and having equal amounts of space.
Populations being distributed with members forming groups together for protection.
population sex ratio
The relative amount of males to females in a population.
population age structure
The amount of members in a population in certain age groups.
Something that affects a population based on how many members are in a certain unit of area. This can include food, water, disease, etc.
Something that affects a population regardless of how many members are in a certain unit of area. This includes natural disasters.
Something that constrains the growth of a population.
The total number of individuals that a population can have for it to be sustainable due to limiting resources.
The symbol for carrying capacity.
How many offspring that can be born minus how many members of population will die.
intrinsic growth rate
The growth of a population in which it is existing under optimal conditions for growth.
The symbol for intrinsic growth rate.
exponential growth model
N(t) = N(0)e^rt
The shape of an exponential growth curve on a graph.
Growth in a population in which there are no limiting resources and the growth of the population continuously increases.
Growth in a population in which it starts out exponentially, but is slowed down until it reaches its carrying capacity due to limiting resources.
The shape of a logistic growth curve on a graph.
The scenario in which a population exceeds its carrying capacity for a period of time.
The scenario in which a population rapidly shrinks due to an overshoot causing instability.
Species that are primarily dominated by their carrying capacity, and therefore reproduce slowly, but are large, receive parental care, and have long life-spans. Growth is fairly slow for these species.
Species that are primarily dominated by their intrinsic growth rate. These produce many offspring at a time and generally do so very often in their short lifetimes. These species often experience many overshoots and die-offs.
The number of members of a population that live to certain ages.
The patterns of survivorship that different species exhibit, which generally correspond to their status of being K-selected or r-selected.
Habitats that connect multiple populations.
Populations that share members that travel between them through corridors.
The study of how species interact within a community.
The contest between two or more species for a specific limiting resource.
competitive exclusion principle
The hypothesis that states that populations that compete against each other cannot exist in that state.
Means that competing species use to eliminate said competition.
temporal resource partitioning
The method of eliminating competition by accessing the shared limiting resource at different times of day.
spatial resource partitioning
The method of eliminating competition by occupying different areas of the habitat.
morphological resource partitioning
The method of eliminating competition by exhibiting physical differences that allow for different prey to be consumed.
The act of gaining energy from other organisms.
The act of killing animals to eat them.
An animal that eats plants or parts of plants.
The act of living on or in a host organism to gain energy from them, generally without killing the host.
A parasite that cause disease for their hosts.
Organisms that lay eggs in host organisms, and upon the eggs hatching, they kill the host.
An interspecies interaction in which both involved species benefit.
An interspecies interaction in which one species is benefited and the other isn't affected positively or negatively.
The relationship of two species living together.
A species that has a disproportional effect in regards to its size on its importance in the community.
The effect of a predatory keystone species that limits the size of a prey species, allowing for other species to exist in the habitat.
Species that create habitats.
The progressive advancement of a community over a long course of time.
The development of communities beginning without soil, developing ultimately to be forested.
The development of communities beginning with soil, but the plants were eliminated due to an environmental change.
A species involved in secondary succession that can grow well and revitalize the community.
The period in ecological succession in which the process has reached its end phase. This does not mean that succession is over, because there will likely be some environmental change.
Ecological succession in lakes and ponds in which the body of water is slowly filled with sediments until it is gone entirely.
theory of island biogeography
The theory that states that the larger the habitat size is for a community, the more species richness the community will have.