APWH 19: Increasing Influence of Europe

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Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
monetization
The establishment of a widely accepted currency for exchange.
guild
A medieval European association of men & women such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests.
chivalry
The informal code of conduct for the nobility of Europe in beginning in the late middle ages.
patron
A person who supports the arts or artists by providing financing for them.
scholasticism
Medieval intellectual movement to harmonize the Bible and Aristotle's teachings. Started by Thomas Aquinas.
Gothic
Architecture of the twelfth-century Europe featuring stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, tall spires, and pointed arches.
William the Conqueror
Norman ruler who invaded England in 1066, extended a tight feudal system to England, established a highly centralized monarchy, and introduced French as the language of the nobility.
Otto the Great
German who increased his power by aiding the pope, ultimately being named Holy Roman Emperor.
Crusades
A series of wars between Muslims and medieval European Christians over land in the Middle East.
pilgrimage
A religion-themed journey to a sacred location.
Reconquista
The expelling of Muslims from Spain. Completed in 1492.
heresy
Speaking against the church or a church doctrine.
Magna Carta
English document signed by John I that declared that the king was subject to the same laws as the people. The origin of due process and fair/speedy trial.