318 terms

AP Art History

Venus of Willendorf
28,000-25,000 BCE, Willendorf Austria, Paleolithic Limestone
one of the oldest sculptures known, anatomical exaggeration and represents women's fertility.
Two Bison
15,000-10,000 BCE, paleolithic, reliefs in the cave of Le Tuc' d'Audoubert, Clay
Animals were far more common that humans in Old Stone Age art. Always represented in profile (only view completely informative).
mural painting
22,000 BCE, spotted horses and negative hand imprints.22,000 BCE Hands = signatures, paleolithic painting.
Hall of the Bulls
15,000-13,000 BCE, Paleolithic
Lascaux, France, no ground line or indication of place, concerned only with representing the animals.
wounded man, and disemboweled bison
15,000-13,000 BCE, Paleolithic
Wall painting in Lascaux, France, represent a hunting scene, first example of narrative art ever discovered.
Deer hunt
5750 BCE, NeolithicCatal Hoyuk, Turkey
depicts human figures as a composite frontal and profile views.
Human Figure
6750-6250 BCE, Neolithic, Plaster
painted and inlaid with cowrie shell and bitumen
Ain Ghazal, Jordan, marks the beginning of monumental sculpture in the history of art.
2550-1600 BCE, Neolithic, Salisbury Plain, England earliest example of monumental architecture, circle of trilithons probably functioned as an astronomical observatory or solar calendar.
2100 BCE, Sumerian, Ur, Iraq
best preserved in Mesopotamia, has three ramp-like stairways of a hundred steps each that originally ended at a gateway to a brick temple.
Warka Vase
3200-3000 BCE, Sumerian, AlabasterFrom Uruk,
Oldest known example of Sumerian narrative art, vase's reliefs divided in three bands, depicts a religious festival in honor to Inanna, goddess of love and war.
Statuettes from the Square Temple at Eshnunna
2700 BCE, Sumerian
Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone
Oversized eyes symbolize perpetual wakefulness of the worshipers offering prayers to the gods, the beakers the figures hold were used to pour libations in honor of the gods.
Standard of Ur
2600 BCE, Sumerian, wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone.
War side, and peace side, mosaic-like technique to tell the story of victory in battle in three registers, size varies with importance.
Head of an Akkadian ruler
2250-2200 BCE, Akkadian, Copper
first known life-size hollow cast captures the distinctive portrait features of ruler while displaying a sense of abstract patter, head was vandalized.
Vistory stele of Naram-Sin
2254-2218 BCE, Akkadian, Pink sandstone
Commemorates the conquest of the Lullubi, shows Naram-Sin leading his army against the enemy, rejects the traditional register format.
Stele with law code of Hammurabi
1780 BCE, Akkadian, Basalt
Records Hammurabi's comprehensive law code, first examples of foreshortening.
720-705 BCE, Assyrian, Limestone
Monsters guarding Assyrian palaces, has five legs, two from the front and 4 in profile.
Ashurbanipal hunting lions
645-640 BCE, Assyrian, Gypsum
Wall of the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, narrative stone relief; hunting lions was regarded as a manly virtue just like victory in warfare.
Ishtar Gate
575 BCE, Assyrian, Glazed brick
Depicts Marduk's dragon and Adad's bull, gate to the city of Babylon
521-465 BCE, Achaemenid Persian, Persian capital Contained an impressive royal audience call with 36 columns. The terraces were decorated with reliefs of inferior nations bringing tributes to the king.
Palette of King Narmer
3000-2920 BCE, Predynastic/Early Dynastic, Slate
Commemorates the unification of upper and lower Egypt, served to apply makeup, Narmer defeats an enemy on one side and on the other observes the decapitated foe.
Typical Mastaba tomb
had an underground burial chamber and rooms to house a portrait statue and offerings to the deceit. interior walls often decorated with scenes of daily life.
Stepped Pyramid
Imhotep, 2630-2611 BCE, Predynastic/Early Dynastic
First pyramid, has the form of stacked mastabas, centerpiece of funerary complex glorifying Djoser.
Great Pyramids
Menkaure: 2490-2472 BCE, Khafre: 2520-2494 BCE, Khufu: 2551-2528, Predynastic/Early Dynastic
Took the shape of the Ben-ben emblem of the sun, Re, corners point to cardinal points, sun's rays are ramp to ascend to the heavens.
Great Sphinx
2520-2494 BCE, Predynastic/Early Dynastic, Sandstone
Largest statue in the Near East, associated with Re, lion's body and pharaoh's head.
2520-2494 BCE, Predynastic/Early Dynastic, Diorite
Depicts Khafre as a divine ruler with an idealized body. Portrays Khafre rigidly with an effect of eternal stillness (timelessness of afterlife).
Menkaure and Khamerernebty
2490-2472 BCE, Predynastic/Early Dynastic,Graywacke
Gestures signify that they are married, Figures are still attached to the stone block they were carved from. Suggests timeless nature.
Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt
2450-2350 BCE, Predynastic/Early Dynastic, Painted limestone
Represents triumph over evil via hunting. Ti appears distant from the hunters and his high rank is portrayed by his size.
Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut
1473-1458 BCE, The New Kingdom
Funerary temple for the first great female monarch in history, was originally decorated with painted reliefs.
Temple of Ramses II
1290-1224 BCE, The New Kingdom, Sandstone
Colossal rock-cut statues that predominate the facade of a mortuary temple. King is depicted as Osiris, god of the dead and giver of eternal life.
Temple of Amen-Re
15th century BCE, The New Kingdom
Temple contains and artificial lake symbolizing the Egyptian creation myth, and a pylon temple for religious rituals.
1353-1335 BCE, The New Kingdom, Sandstone
Reaction against tradition, androgynous image is an attempt to depict the pharaoh as Aton, a sexless sun disk.
1353-1335 BCE, Thutmose, The New Kingdom, Painted limestone
Akhenaton's wife is portrayed elegantly and beautifully, her expression is that of thinking and she has a long neck. It is an unfinished portrait.
Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamen
1323 BCE, The New Kingdom, Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones
Mummy encased most innerly is the most costly, portrays pharaoh as Osiris.
Death mask of Tutankhamen
1323 BCE, The New Kingdom, Gold with inlay of semiprecious stones
Mask that covered pharaoh's mummy depicts grandeur and richness. Portrait of the king dressed in his official royal clothing, including a headdress and false beard.
Figurine of a Woman
2500-2300 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Cycladic, Marble
Nude woman, meant for a grave, female body portrayed with large triangles.
Palace at Knossos
1700-1400 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Minoan
Largest palace on Crete, home of King Minos, rooms surround a court, gave way to the myth of the Minotaur in the labyrinth.
Stairwell in palace at Knossos
1700-1400 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Minoan
Stairwell, columns decrease in width from top to bottom
1450-1400 BCE, prehistoric Aegan/Minoan, Fresco
Human figures with pinched waists and stylized shapes, skin color varies with sex, depicts Minoan ceremony of bull-leaping.
Spring Fresco
1650 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Minoan, Fresco
Wet fresco, first known pure landscape, vivid colors, undulating lines.
Octopus Jar
1500 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Minoan
Octopus united to the shape of the vase, tentacles fill the curving spaces.
Snake Godess
1600 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Minoan, Faience
May represent a priestess, or a goddess, snakes and leopard feline imply that she is powerful.
Citadel at Tiryns
1400-1200 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Mycenaean
The City of Great walls, Cyclopean masonry, roughly cut stone blocks
Lion Gate
1300-1250 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Mycenaean, Limestone
Largest sculpture of the time, confronting lions, Mycenae's main gate, two monoliths and lintel.
Treasure Atreus
1300-1250 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Mycenaean
Burial chamber covered by a pile of soil, entered through a doorway.
Interior of the Tholos
1300-1250 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Mycenaean
composed of corbeled courses of stone blocks laid on a circula base. Largest dome in ancient world.
Funerary Mask
1600-1500 BCE, Prehistoric Aegan/Mycenaean, Beaten gold
Mask comes from a royal shaft grave, not known who it represented.
Geometric Krater
740 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic
Abstract ornaments, funerary krater, mourning scene and procession in honor of the dead.
Lady Auxerre
650-625 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic,Limestone
Kore, presents the Daedalic style of, triangular face and hair.
600 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic, Marble
Kouros, Egyptian pose, nude and carved in the round.
530 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic, Marble
Kouros, increased naturalism, rounded modeling of face, torso, arms and legs, figure is smiling indicating he is alive.
Peplos Kore
530 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic, Marble
Clothed woman, smiling, offering in Athena's Acropolis, perhaps represents Athena.
Temple of Hera
550 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic
Peristyle, Doric temple, cigar shaped columns, pancake-like capitals, roof is missing.
West pediment of the Temple of Artemis
600-580 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic, Limestone
Medusa and two panthers are temple guardians, scenes from the Trojan War and the battle of gods and giants.
Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game
540-530 BCE
Greek/Geometric and Archaic
Black-figure painting, portrays heroes playing a dice game, dramatic tension, amphora, both fully armed
Herakles wrestling Antaios
Euphronios, 510 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic
Red-figure krater, rejected composite view and attempted a single viewpoint, battle between Greek hero and a giant.
Three Revelers
Euthymides, 510 BCE, Greek/Geometric and Archaic
Red-figure amphora, represents human body in unusual positions, fore shortened three-quarter view
Statues from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia
500-490 BCE,Greek/Geometric and Archaic,Marble
Pediment uses range of body postures, Athena is larger than the rest.
Dying warrior from West pediment
500-490 BCE,Greek/Geometric and Archaic,Marble
Archaic features, fallen warrior with a smile, and rigid torso.
Dying warrior from East pediment
490-480 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
Natural posture, self-consciousness, pain, does not face viewer.
Kritios Boy
480 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
First statue with contrapposto, no smile, from the Acropolis.
Warrior from Riace
460-450 BCE, Greek/Classical, Bronze
Hollow-cast statue, inlaid eyes, silver teeth and eyelashes, copper lips and nipples, contrapposto is pronounced, statue originally had a shield, spear and helmet.
Myron, 450 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble (original bronze)
Discus thrower, body and limbs form two intersecting arcs.
Polykleitos, 450-440 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble (bronze original)
Spear bearer, human movement, harmonic proportions, system of cross balance.
Iktinos and Kallikrates, 447-438 BCE, Greek/Classical
Harmonic proportions, temple for Athena, ratio of x=2y+1
Lapith versus centaur
447-438 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
Centauromachy metope, refers to Greek defeat of the Persians, distinguishes the centaur from the corpse.
Helos and his horses
438-432 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
Depicts birth of athena, horses of Helios rise from the floor (sun rising at dawn).
Three goddesses
438-432 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite, garments are thin and heavy and reveal body forms.
Panathenaic Festival procession frieze
447-438 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
Ionic frieze of the Parthenon, festival of citizens on horseback, celebrates mortal Athenians and Athena.
421-405 BCE, Greek/Classical, Multiple shrine, honored Athena but included other gods, Erechteus early king of Athens, decorative details.
Temple of Athena Nike
Kallikrates, 427-424 BCE, Greek/Classical
Temple at the entrance to the Acropolis, Ionic architecture, celebrates Athena's victoriousness, one of the friezes portrays the Persian defeat at Marathon.
Nike adjusting her sandal
410 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
Garments are almost transparent, image of Victory with wings, drapery folds in linear patterns.
Grave stele of hegeso
400 BCE, Greek/Classical, Marble
Tombstone for the daughter of Proxenos, she looks at a piece of jewelry that a servant girl holds. Daily life moment, the inscriptions reveals that she died.
Warrior taking leave of his wife
Achilles Painter, 440 BCE, Greek/Classical
White-ground lekythos, eyes drawn in profile, set on the interior of a home.
Aphrodite of Knidos
Praxiteles, 350-340 BCE, Greek/Late Classical, Marble
First nude statue of a goddess, sensuous pose, Aphrodite about to take a bath.
Hermes and the infant Dionysios
Praxiteles, 438-432 BCE, Greek/Late Classical, Marble
Sensuous pose, god looks into space, waves grapes to the infant wine god.
Lysippos, 330 BCE, Greek/Late Classical, Marble (bronze original)
Scraper, canon proportions, nervous energy, should be seen from different angles
Battle of Issus
Philoxenos of Eretria, 310 BCE, Greek/Late Classical
Tessera mosaic
Foreshortening, modeling in color, reflections and shadows. Psychological intensity, confrontation between Alexander and Darius.
Theater at Epidauros
Polykleitos, 350 BCE, Greek/Late Classical
Theater on a hillside, finest in Greece, accommodated 12,000 spectators.
Altar of Zeus
175 BCE, Greek/Late Classical
Gigantomachy frieze is about 400 feet long, battle alluded to the victory of King Attalos I over the Gauls of Asia Minor.
Athena battling Alkyoneos
175 BCE, Greek/Late Classical, Marble
Gigantomachy, emotional intensity, violent movement, swirling draperies, suffering.
Dying Gaul
Epigonos, 230-220 BCE, Greek/Late Classical, Marble
Depicts defeat of the Gauls, barbarians with bushy hair, mustaches, neck bands, noble foes, portrays pain
Nike of Samothrace
190 BCE, Greek/Late Classical, Marble
Victory will crown a victor at sea, her wings beat, and the wind blows her drapery, statue was placed on a fountain.
Venus de Milo
Alexandros of Antioch-on-the-Meander
150-125 BCE, Greek/Hellenistic, Marble
Displays eroticism, Aphrodite is sexual, slipping garment.
Old Market Woman
150-110 BCE, Greek/Hellenistic, Marble
Realistic, old woman bringing chickens and a basket of fruits and vegetables to sell in a market
Laocoon and his sons
Athanadoros Hagesandros and Polydoros of Rhodes, Early first century CE, Greek/Hellenistic, Marble
Revived in Rome, sea serpents attacking Laocoon as portayed in the Aeneid
Roman Empire
Apulu (Apollo)
510-500 BCE, Etruscan, Painted terracota
Part of a group portraying the Ceryneian hind, Etruscan charging motion and arm gestures, and the fact that the statue was placed on a roof.
Sarcophagus with reclining couple
520 BCE, Etruscan, Painted terracota
Focus on the couple having dinner's faces and gestures, sarcophagus.
Interior of the Tom of the REliefs
Third century BCE, Etruscan, Painted terracota
Located in Cerveteri necropolis it had scores of tumuli with underground burial chambers. The tombs resembled houses and the interior was painted with stucco reliefs evoking a domestic context.
Leopards, banqueters and musicians
480-470 BCE, Etruscan Tomb of the Leopards Mural painting.
Tarquinian tomb, banqueting couples, servants, and musicians celebrate the joys of the good life. Men have dark skin, and women fair skin
Capitoline Wolf
500-480 BCE, Etruscan, Bronze
She-wolf nurses the infants Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, the animal has a psychic intensity.
Aule Metele (Arringatore)
Early first century BCE, Etruscan, Bronze
Statue of an orator who wears the short toga and high boots of a Roman magistrate, republican portrait style
Temple of Fortuna Verilis
75 BCE, Roman/Republic
Combines Etruscan plan and Greek elevation, pseudoperipteral temple with Ionic order, but staircase and freestanding columns only at the front.
Head of Roman Partrician
75-50 BCE, Roman/Republic, Marble
Veristic portrait of an old man from a distinguished family. Demonstrates the faith and wisdom of the elderly.
Roman Forum
Various Architects, Second century BCE, Roman/Pompeii
Center of Roman Civic life, colonnades fram a rectangular plaza, basilica is in the southwestern corner, Pompeii's law court
Amphitheater at Pompeii
70 BCE, Roman/Pompeii, Concrete
Earliest known amphitheater, elliptical cavea allowed concrete. The place were gladiatorial combats and wild animal hunts took place.
Atrium of the House of the Vetti
62-79 CE, Roman/Pompeii
Roman townhouse with a central atrium and an impluvium to collect rainwater. A peristyle garden is added at the rear.
First Style wall painting at Samnite House
Late second century BCE, Roman/Pompeii/Vesuvius
Wall fainting
First style mural, imitates marble panels using painted stucco relief. Greek style in origin.
Dionysiac mystery frieze
60-50 BCE, Roman/Pompeii, Frieze
Second Style painting, imaginary three-dimensional world on the wall of a Roman house. Represents the initiation rites of a mysterious religion of Dionysos.
Second Style wall painting at Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor
50-40 BCE, Roman/Pompeii/Vesuvius, Wall painting
Second style painting that opened up the walls with vistas of towns, temples, and colonnaded courtyards, convincing illusionism, use of linear perspectiv
30-20 BCE, Roman/Pompeii/Vesuvius, Wall painting
Second Style painting in Livia's villa, used atmospheric perspective, portrayal of a garden.
Third Style wall painting at Villa of Agrippa
Postumus, 10 BCE, Roman/Pompeii/Vesuvius
Wall painting
Third style painting decorated with linear fantasies on a monochromatic background. A minuscule landscape is at the center of a solid black wall.
Fourth Style wall painting at Ixion Room
70-79 CE, Roman/Pompeii, Wall painting
Crowded with confused compositions and a mixture of architectural vistas, framed panel paintings, and motifs included in the First and Third Styles
Still life with peaches
62-79 CE, Roman/Pompeii/Vesuvius, Wall painting
Fourth style painting, reflects Roman interest in illusionism, attentive light and shadow on different shapes and textures.
Portrait of Augustus as general
20 BCE, Roman/Early Empire, Marble
Idealized portrait of Augustus modeled after Classical Greek statues, depicted as a timeless son of a god, the portrait shows him in armor.
Ara Pacis Augustae
13-9 BCE, Roman/Early Empire, Marble
Augustus presented his new orders as a Golden Age, this celebrates the emperor's establishment of peace.
Procession of the imperial family
13-9 BCE, Roman/Early Empire, Marble
Detail of the Ara Pacis Augustae, inspired by the Panathenaic procession frieze of the Parthenon, depicts individuals, including children, to promote marriage and childbearing.
16 BCE, Roman/Early Empire
Aqueduct bridge that brought water from the mountain spring to Nimes. Consists of three rows of arches, the uppermost level arches are smaller than the middle and lower level arches.
70-80 CE
Roman/Early Empire
Consists of a complex system of concrete barrel vaults, held 50000 spectators and is the world's largest amphitheater. The exterior has Tuscan Doric at the lower level, Ionic, and Corinthian columns at the top.
Portrait bust of a Flavian woman
90 CE
Roman/Early Empire
Elegant hair made by drilling deep holes, drill-work created a dense mass of light and shadow.
Arch of Titus
81 CE
Roman/Early Empire
Triumphal arch to honor an emperor who became a god after his death. Victories fill the spandrels and the passageway.
Spoils of Jerusalem
81 CE
Roman/Early Empire
Relief panel in the passageway of the Arch of Tits. Commemorates the emperor's greatest achievement, the conquest of Judaea. Roman soldiers carry the spoils taken from the jewish temple in Jerusalem.
Triumph of Titus
81 CE, Roman/Early Empire, Marble
Victory accompanies Titus in his triumphal chariot, personifications of honor and valor. First known instance of human and divine figures together in a roman historical relief.
Forum of Trajan
Apollodorus of Damascus, 112 CE, Roman/High Empire
Trajan built Rome's largest forum with the spoils from two wars in Dacia. Featured: triumphal gateway, statutes of Dacian captives, an equestrian statute of the emperor and a basilica with clerestory light.
Column of Trajan
112 CE, Roman/High Empire, marble
Tells the story of the Dacian wars in 150 episodes. All aspects of the campaigns are included from fierce battles to solemn sacrifices and road and fort construction.
Markets of Trajan
Apollodorus of Damascus, 100-112 CE, Roman/High Empire.
Resembles a modern shopping mall, housed two floors of shops, upper part lit by skylight, concrete groin vaults cover the central space.
118-125 CE, Roman/High Empire
Hadrian's "temple of all gods", stood at one narrow end of the enclosure.
Interior of the Pantheon
118-125 CE, Roman/High Empire
The coffered dome is 142 feet in diameter and in height. The light entering through its oculus forms a circular beam that moves across the doe as the sun moves across the sky.
Equestrian statute of Marcus Aurelius
175 CE, Bronze, Roman/High Empire
Marcus Aurelius stretches out his arms in a gesture of clemency, statue coveys his power.
Mummy portrait of a man
160-170 CE, Encaustic on wood, Roman/High Empire.
Painted portraits replaced the traditional masks. Painted in encaustic (color mixed with hot wax).
Baths of Caracalla
212-216 CE, Roman/Late Empire
Covered almost of almost 50 acres, and included landscaped gardens. Contained groin vaults, mosaic floors, marble-faced walls and colossal statuary.
Portrait of Caracalla
211-217 CE, Roman/Late Empire, Marble
Suspicious personality is captured in this portrait, brow is knotted and he abruptly turns his head over his shoulder, ad if he suspects danger from behind.
Portrait bust of Trajan Decius
249-251 CE, Roman/Late Empire, Marble
A short-lived "soldier emperor" depicts an older man with a sad expression. The eyes glance away nervously, reflecting anxiety of an insecure ruler.
Sarcophagus with battle of Romans and barbarians
250-260 CE, Roman/Late Empire, Marble
Chaotic scene of battle between the ROmans and barbarians decorates the front of this usually large sarcophagus. The emotive figures are pilled up in an emphatic rejection of classical perspective.
The four tetrarchs
305 CE, Roman/Late Empire, Porphyry
Diocletian established the tetrarchy to bring order to the roman world. The four rulers appear together not as individual but as identical partners in power.
Portrait of Constantine
315-330 CE, Roman/Late Empire, Marble
Revives the Augustan image of an eternally youthful ruler. This colossal head is one of several fragments of an enthroned Jupiter-like statue of an emperor holding the orb of world power.
Arch of Constantine
312-315 CE, Roman/Late Empire
Decoration from monuments of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. Sculptor recut the heads of the earliest emperors with Constantin's features.
Distribution of largess
312-315 CE, Roman/Late Empire, Marble
Less narrative of action, the rigid formality reflects the new values that would come to dominate medieval light.
The Good Shepherd
4th century, Early Christian Art, painted ceiling
Mixed old and new testament themes, Jonah was a popular subject because he was swallowed by a sea monster and emerged safely after three days, prefiguring Christ resurrection.
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
359, Early Christian Art, Marble
The wealthiest christians favored elaborately decorated sarcophagi. Biblical episodes from Adam and Eve to Christ before pilate appear in ten niches two rows.
Interior of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo
504, Early Christian Art
Early Christian basilican churches were timber roofed and illuminated by clerestory window. The columns of the nave produced steady rhythm that focused all attention on the apse, which framed the altar.
Interior of Santa Constanza
337-351, Early Christian Art
Has antecedents in the domed structures of the Romans, but has an ambulatory framed by 12 pairs of columns.
Christ as the good shepherd
425, Early Christian art, Mosaic
Jesus sits among his flock, haloed and robed in gold and purple. The landscape and the figures, with their cast shadows, are the work of a mosaicist still deeply rooted in naturalistic classical tradition.
Miracle of the loaves and fishes
504, Early Christian art, Mosaic
Jesus faces directly toward the viewer. The gold background represented divinity and was standard for medieval mosaics.
Rebecca and Eliezer at the well
Early sixth century , tempera, gold, and silver on a purple vellum.
Classical motifs and stylistic modes persist in this sumptuously painted book (the oldest well-perserved manuscript containing biblical scenes). Two episode in a single setting.
Hagia Sophia
532-537, Early Byzantine, Anthemius of Tralles and Isodurus of Miletus
The reign of Justinian marks the beginning of the first golden age of Byzantine art and architecture. One of the restored churches of Constantinople.
interior of Hagia Sophia
532-537, Early Byzantine, Anthemius of Tralles and Isodurus of Miletus
Pendentive construction made it possible to construct the dome that rays a halo of light. A "golden chain of heaven".
San Vitale
526-547, Early Byzantine
Honored Saint Vitalis, who was martyred at Ravenna in the second century. Ravenna was the seat of Byzantine dominion. The interior filtered light through alabaster-paned windows and contains mosaics and glowing marbles that cover San Vitale's complex wall.
Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants
547, Early Byzantine, Mosaic
San Vitale's mosaics reveal the new Byzantine aesthetic. Justinian is foremost among the dematerialized frontal figures who hover before the viewer.
Theodora and Attendants
547, Early Byzantine, Mosaic
Empress Theodora, a powerful figure at the Byzantine court. She never visited Ravenna so their mosaics represent their "visitation".
Virgin and Child, between Saints Theodore and George
6th century, Early Byzantine, Icon
Byzantine icons continued the Roman tradition of panel painting in encaustic on wood panels, but the hieratic style as well the Christian subjects broke sharply from classical models.
Christ as Pantokrator
1090-1100, Middle Byzantine, Mosaic
The fearsome image of Christ as "ruler of all", is like a gigantic icon hovering dramatic in space. The mosaic serves to connect the awestruck worshiper below the dome with heaven through Christ.
1090-1100, Middle Byzantine, Mosaic
Subtle blend of Hellenistic style and the more abstract Byzantine manner. The virgin Mary and Saint John point to Christ on the cross as if to a devotional object.
Saint Marks
1063, Middle Byzantine
Has a central dome over the crossing and four other domes over the four equal arms of the Greek cross. The walls are covered with gold-ground mosaics.
1164, Middle Byzantine, wall painting
Staged the emotional scene of the lamentation on a hilly landscape below a blue sky and peopled it with fully modeled actors.
David composing the Psalms
950-970, Middle Byzantine, Folio 1
Revived Classical style, David is here portrayed like a greek hero, accompanied by Melody, Echo, Bethlehem.
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child
Late 11th to 12th CE, Middle Byzantine, Icon
Mary is depicted as the virgin of compassion, who presses her cheek against her son, as she contemplates his future.
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Dome of the Rock
687-692, Islamic
Commemorates the triumph of Islam in Jerusalem, which the Muslims had captured from the Byzantines. The shrine takes the form of an octagon with a towering dome. Interior mosaics resemble paradise.
The Great Mosque
836-875, Islamic
Resembles Muhammad's house in Medina. One of the oldest mosques, has an arcaded forecourt that resembles a Roman forum and leads to the columnar prayer hal.
Prayer hall of the Great Mosque of Cordoba
8th to 10th centuries, Islamic/Spain
Consist of 36 piers and 514 horseshoe-shaped arches. Derived from earlier shorter columns.
Dome at Great Mosque of Cordoba
961-965, Islamic/Spain
Represents Islamic experimentation with highly decorated multi-lobed arches. Consists of varied abstract patterns with mosaics.
Muqarnas Dome
Has an octagonal drum, intricately carved stucco muqarnas decoration. The prismatic forms reflect sunlight giving it an effect of a starry sky.
Great Mosque of Isfahan
11th to 17th cent, Islamic/Iran
Has four iwans opening onto a courtyard, the largest in Iran leads to a dome-covered maqsura that is in front of the mihrab. Large courtyard with two-story arcades on each border.
Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami
1354, Islamic/Iran, Mosaic tilework
Mihrab with Arabic calligraphy. Contains sacred words from the Koran. The inscriptions proclaim that the mosque is the home of the faithful believer an the five pillars of Islamic faith.
Koran page
10th century, Islamic, Ink and gold on vellum
Kufic script, five text lines and a plan-tree finial under a gold decorative band, vowels are in red
Carpet from the funerary mosque of Shaykh
1540, Din, Maqsud of Kashan, Islamic/Iran, Knotted pile of wood and silk
Carpet consist of about 25 million knots, illusion of a dome with lamps reflected in a pool of water with floating lotus flowers.
Early Medieval and Romanesque Europe
Purse Cover
625, Gold, glass, and enamel cloisonné with garnets and emeralds, Warrior lords
One of the treasures found in a buried ship. Combines animal figures with interlace ornament.
Lindifarne Gospels
698-721, Hiberno-Saxon, Tempera on vellum
Combination of Christian imagery and animal-interlace style. Has motion and change, the interlaces are in symmetry. Rich color.
Book of Kells
Late eighth or early ninth century, Hiberno-Saxon, Tempera on vellum
The illuminator used abstract pattern, making God's words beautiful, intricate design resembles early medieval metal work.
Coronation Gospels
800-810, Carolingian, Ink and tempera on vellum
Produced for Charlemagne's court, classically inspired, light, shade, and perspective create the illusion of three dimensions.
Ebbo Gospels
816-835, Carolingian, Ink and tempera on vellum
Saint Matthew writes in an agitated manner, his drapery fold and vibrate. The landscape is alive, and merges classical illusionism and linear tradition.
Lindau Gospels
870, Carolingian, Gold, precious stones, and pearls
Luxurious book cover, resembles Early Christian portrayals of the young Christ. Classical statuesque figure of the Savior and ignorance of pain.
Palatine Chapel
792-805, Carolingian
First vaulted structure of the Middle Ages in the West, resembles San Vitale, simple but large geometric form
Saint Michael's
1001-1031, Ottonian
Built by Bishop Benward, distinctive profile, two apses, tow transepts, multiple towers, loss of the traditional basilican orientation toward the East. Uses alternate-support-system.
Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero
970, Ottonian, Painted wood
Commissioned by Archbishop Gero for the Cologne Cathedral, revived monumental sculpture, emotional agony of Christ's crucifixion.
1070-1120, Romanesque
Used for pilgrims, crossing square is flanked by massive piers and heavy arches. Increased the length of the nave, doubled the side aisles, and added a transept and ambulatory with radiating chapels that held the relics.
Saint Michael's Doors
1015, Ottonian, Bronze
Commissioned by Bishop Benward, include the Genesis on the left, and the life of Christ on the right. Tell the story of Original Sin and ultimate redemption. Show the expulsion from the Garden of Eden.
Late 11th to early 12th century, Romanesque
One of the first to use groin vaults in the nave as well as in the aisles, alternate-support system.
1067, Romanesque
Facade is divided in three as well as the towers, six-part groin vaults rise highly for the clerestory.
Durham Cathedral
1093, Romanesque
Earliest ribbed groin vault use over a three-story nave. Large pillars decorated with abstract designs alternate with compound piers under the seven-part vaults
Cathedral complex
1174, Romanesque
Pisa's cathedra has Early Christian basilica type, regional diversity. Cathedral has a anve and fou aisles, transept and crossing dome distinguish the church as Romanesque.
Cloister of Saint-Pierre.
1100-1115, Romanesque
Capitals decorated with reliefs, Moissac cloister is the most extensive group of sculptured Early Romanesque capitals.
South portal of Saint-Pierre
1115-1135, Romanesque, Moissaic
Served to educate the illiterate, sculptor carved the Second Coming of Chirst as King and Judge of the world in its last days. Matthew as a winged man, Mark as lion, John as an eagle, and Luke as an ox. Elders divided into three tiers.
Last Judgement
Gislebertus, 1120-1135, Romanesque, Marble
Located at Saint-Lazare, Christ is enthroned in a mandorla, and separates the blessed from the damned. Designed to terrify the sinners and encourage them to go to church.
Ascension of Christ and Mission of the Apostles
1120-1132, Romanesque
Located at La Madeleine, light rays come out of Christ's hands representing the Holy Spirit in the apostles. This is associated with the Crusades that were viewed as the second mission of the apostles.
Head reliquary of Saint Alexander
1145, Romanesque, Silver repousse, gilt bronze, gems, pearls, and enamel
Used costly material t contain saints' relics. Idealized classical head mixed with Byzantine-style enamels
Moralia in Job
1115-1125, Romanesque, Ink and tempera on vellum
Decorated initial in Romanesque terms, duel between a knight and dragon, may symbolize the inner spiritual conflict of monks.
Moses expounding the Law
Master Hugo, 1135, Romanesque, Ink and tempera on vellum, folio
Shows to scenes from Deuteronomy that are framed by leaf motifs. The upper register portrays Moses and Aaron and the Israelites, and the lower register shows Moses pointing out the clean and unclean beasts.
Eadwine Psalter
Eadwine the Scribe, 1160-1170, Romanesque, Ink and tempera on vellum, folio
Eadwine declared himself in an inscription "prince among scribes", the artists portraits himself at work, the drapery falls softly and follows the movements of the body.
The Vision of Hildegard of Bingen
1150-1179, Romanesque, Ink and tempera on vellum
Hildegard of Bingen having a divine vision, five tongues of fine are above her and enter her brain, she writes down what she has seen on a wax tablet, a monk copies it into a book.
Bayeux Tapestry
1070-1080, Romanesque, Embroidered wool on linen
It depicts a contemporaneous even in detail, continuous narrative of moments in England's history. Commissioned by Bishop Odo,
Ambulatory and radiating chapels (Abbey church)
1140-1144, French Gothic, Abbey church, Saint-Denis, France
Abbot Suger's remodeling of the east end of Saint Denis. Rib vaults resting on pointed arches spring from slender columns, lux nova enters through the window.
Chartres Cathedral
1140 - 1300, French Gothic
The archivolts of the right portal depict the seven female Liberal Arts and their male champions; the figures represent the core of medieval learning and symbolize human knowledge.
Royal Portal
1145-1155, French Gothic
proclaim the majesty and power of Christ. The tympana depict from left to right, Christ's Ascension, the Second Coming, and Jesus in the lap of the Virgin Mary.
Old Testament Kings and Queen
1145-1155, French Gothic
proclaim the majesty and power of Christ. The tympana depict from left to right, Christ's Ascension, the Second Coming, and Jesus in the lap of the Virgin Mary.
1163-1200, French Gothic
Flying buttresses were first used on a grand scale at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. They countered the outward thrust of the Nave vaults and held up the towering nave walls.
Interior of Chartres
1194, French High Gothic
First church that was planned since the beginning with flying buttresses and made it possible for the substitution of the triforium for the
Rose window
1220, French High, Stained glass
Transformed natural light into lux nova. The immense rose window and tall lancets were gift of Blanche of Castile, Queen of France
Saint Theodore
1230, French High Gothic, Jamb statue
Theodore is still attached to the column, it is the ideal Christian warrior. The body's resulting torsion and pronounced sway recall classical Greek statuary.
Amiens Cathedral
Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, Renaud de Cormont. 1220, French High Gothic
Amiens Cathedral proportions are more elegant , and the number and complexity of the lancet windows in in both its clerestory and triforium are even greater.
Reims Cathedral
1225-1290, French High Gothic
The facade of Reims cathedral displays the High Gothic architect's desire to reduce sheer mass and replace it with framed voids. Contains stained glass windows.
Visitation (Jambs statues of central doorway)
1230, French High Gothic
Saint Elizabeth and the Virgin Mary appear to be detached from their column.Classical Naturalistic style and contrapposto posture. Heads of both women look like ancient Roman portraits.
1243-1248, French High Gothic
The architect dissolved the walls to the point that 6,450 feet of stained glass make up more than three-quarters of the structure.
Virgin and Child
early 14th century, French High Gothic
Elegant and mannered, religious figures gave way to tender and anecdotal portrayal of Mary and JEsus as a royal mother and son.
God as Architect of the world
1220-1230, French High Gothic, folio
Paris = intellectual capital of Europe and the center of production for fine books. God is portrayed as an industrious architect creating the universe using the same tools as Gothic builders.
Blanche of Castile
1226-1234, French High Gothic, Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum
Costly gold-leaf depiction page of a Bible that narrates Saint Louis, his mother and two monks it was a gift from the Queen to her son.
Virgin of Jeanne d' Evreaux
1339, High French Gothic, silver gilt and enamel.
Mary stands on a rectangular base decorated with enamel scenes of Christ's Passion. There is no grief in Mary's face. The statuette also served as a reliquary.
Salisbury Cathedral
1220-1258, English Gothic
Exhibits the distictional regional features of english gothic, has a squad facade that is wider than the building behind it. Flying buttresses were used sparingly. Interior: strong horizontal emphasis of its three story elevation and use of dark Purbeck marble for molding.
Chapel of Henry VII
Robert and William Vertue, 1503-1519, late English Gothic
Two Hallmarks of the Perpendicular style and multiplication of ribs and the use of fan vaults with lacelike tracery and large hanging pendants resembling stalactites.
Cologne Cathedral
Gerhard of Cologne, 1322, German Gothic
The largest church in northern europe. Its 150 foot high choir is a prime example of Gothic quest for height.
Death of the Virgin
1230, German Gothic, Tympanum
Figures express profound sorrow through dramatic poses and gestures, and stir an emotional response in the viewer.
Ekkehard and Uta
1249-1255, german gothic, painted limestone
The period costumes and individualized features of these donor portraits give the impression that they posed for their statues, but they lived long before the statues time.
Virgin with Dead Christ
1300-1325, german gothic, painted wood
The widespread troubles of the 14th century and the German interest in emotional imagery are reflected in this statue of the Virgin grieving over the dead body of christ in her lap.
The Annunciation and the Nativity
Nicola Pisano, 1259-1260, Italian Gothic, Marble
The face, bears and draperies were inspired by ancient reliefs the sculptor studied in italy, as well as specific motifs.
Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets
Cimabue, 1280-1290, Italian Gothic, Tempera on Wood
Heritage of Byzantine icon painting, the Virgin rest within her Gothic throne with the stability of an ancient marble godess.
Madonna Enthroned
Giotto de Bondone, 1310, Italian Gothic, Tempera on wood.
Displaced byzantine style in Italian painting and revived the naturalism of classical art. Figures have substance, dimensionality and bulk.
Interior of Arena Chapel
Giotto de Bondone, 1305-1306, Italian Gothic, frescoes
In 38 framed panels, he presented the complete cycle of life of Christ, the last judgement covers the entrance wall.
Giotto de Bondone, 1305, Italian Gothic, fresco
Dramatic scene of grief, figures are arranged on a shallow scale and a rocky landscape directs the viewer's attention towards the head of dead Christ.
Virgin and Child enthroned with Saints
Duccio Di Buoninsegna, 1308-1311, Italian Gothic, altarpiece
Formality and symmetry from Byzantine tradition, but relaxed the rigidity and frontality of the figures, softened the drapery and individualized the faces.
Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi, 1333, Tempera and gold leaf on wood, Italian Gothic.
features elegant shapes, radiant color, flowing line, and weightless figures in spaceless settings.
Peaceful city
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 1338-1339, Italian gothic, fresco
Illusionistic representation in this panorama of the bustling city of Sienna, the fresco was intended as an allegory of good government.
Orvieto Cathedral
Lorenzo Maitani, 1310, Italian Gothic
Pointed gables over the doorway, rose window, and large pinnacles that derive from French architecture. It is a gothic overlay masking a timber-roofed cathedral.
Florence Cathedral
Arnolfo Di Cambio, 1296, Italian Gothic
Logitudinal basilican church with tuscan style marble encrusted walls (contrast with Reims). Regional diversity of Gothic architecture.
Milan Cathedral
1386, Late Italian Gothic
Mixture of late gothic pinnacles and tracery with Renaissance pediment-capped rectilinear portals. Transitional piece.
15th Century
Well of Moses
Claus Sluter, 1395-1405, Limestone, Flemish/ Renaissance.
Moses, David and four other prophets, it is a symbolic fountain of life, figures recall the jamb statues of French gothic portals but are far more realistic.
Ghent Altarpiece
Jan Van Eyck, 1432, Oil on Wood, Flemish/ Renaissance
Artists decorated both interior and exteriors of these polyptychs. Painting of salvation from the original sin of Adam and Eve, God the Father presides in majesty. Every figure, garment, and object with lovig fidelity to appearance.
Roger Van Der Weyden, 1435, Oil on wood, Flemish/Renaissance
Resembles a relief carving in which crisply drawn and precisely modeled figures painted in oil act out a drama of passionate sorrow.
The Annunciation
Robert Campin, 1425-28, oil on wood, flemish/renaissance
Takes place in middle-class Flemish home in which the objects represented have symbolic significance (mousetrap= Christ as bait to catch the devil).
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
Jan Van Eyck, 1434, oil on wood, flemish/renaissance
Established portraiture as an important art form. Italian financier and his wife, Van Eyck is portrayed in the mirror in the back wall.
Garden of Early Delights
Hieronymus Bosch, 1505-1510, oil on wood, flemish/renaissance
Bosch was the most imaginative and enigmatic painter of his era. He created a fantasy world filled of nude men and women and bizarre creatures and objects. At the left wing "the creation of eve" and at the left "Hell".
Book of Hours (October)
Limbourg Brothers, 1413-1416, tempera and ink on vellum, french/renaissance
The 12 calendar pictures in this luxurious prayer book give unusual prominence to genre subjects, reflecting the integration of religious and secular concerns.
Melun Diptych
Jean Foquet, 1450, oil on wood, french/renaissance
A diptych (two panel painting) represents a pious kneeling donor with a standing patron saint that recalls flemish paintings, as well as the three-quarter stances and the sharp focus of the portraits.
The Assumption of the Virgin
Tilman Reimenschneider, 1495-99, carved lindenwood, german/renaissance.
Features intricate Gothic tracery and religious figures whose bodies are almost lost within their swirling garments.
Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons
Martin Schongauer, 1480-90, engraving, german/renaissance
By using burin to incise lines in a copper plate, he was able to create a marvelous variety of tonal values and textures.
Sacrifice of Isaac (lose)
Filippo Brunelleschi, 1401-02, gilded bronze relieved, italian/renaissance
Brunelleschi entry in the competition to make new bronze doors for the Florentine baptisery shows frantic angel about to halt an emotional lunging to Abraham clothed in swirling Gothic draperies.
Sacrifice of Isaac (win)
Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1401-02, gilded bronze relieved, italian/renaissance.
Features gracefully poses. figures that recall classical statuary. Even Isaac's altar is decorated with Roman acanthus frieze.
Gates of Paradise
Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1425-1452, gilded bronze relief, italian/renaissance
Employed the new science of perspective to create an illusion of distance in his relief panels.
Saint Mark
Donatello, 1411-1413, Marble, italian/renaissance
Introduced the classical principle of contrapposto into early renaissance sculpture. The drapery falls naturally and moves with the body.
Tribute Money
Masaccio, 1427, Fresco, italian/renaissance
Figures recall Giotto's simple grandeur, but convey a greater psychological and physical credibility and are illuminated by light coming from a single source outside the picture.
Holy Trinity
Masaccio, 1428, Fresco, italian/renaissance
embodies two principals: realism based on observation and the application of mathematics to pictorial organization (perspective).
Dome of Florence
Filippo Brunelleschi, 1420-1436, italian/renaissance
Solved the problem of placing a dome over a 140 foot crossing of Florentine Cathedral designing a thin double shell that mas ogival instead of round in a section.
Santo Spirito
Filippo Brunelleschi, 1436, italian renaissance
Displays a classically inspired rationality of his mature architectural style in its all-encompassing modular scheme based on the dimensions of the dome-covered crossing space.
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
Michelozzo Di Bartolommeo, 1445, italian renaissance
Designed for the Medici palace, with its combination of dressed and rusticated masonry and classical molding. Inside is surrounded by a round-arched colonnade.
Santa Maria Novella
Leon Battista, 1458-1470, italian renaissance
Alberti's design for the facade of this gothic church features a classicizing pediment-capped temple front and pilaster-enframed arcades. All proportions were based on numerical ratios.
Donatello, 1450, bronze, italian renaissance
Possesses both a relaxed nude contrapposto and the sensuous beauty of a nude Greek god. The revival of classical statuary style appealed to the sculptor's patron (Medici).
Battle of Ten Nudes
Antonio Pollaiuolo, 1465, engraving, italian renaissance
Fascinated by how muscles and sinews activate human skeleton. He delighted in showing nude figures in violent action and from numerous foreshortened points. He used écorché.
Birth of Venus
Sandro Botticelli, 1482, Tempera on canvas, italian renaissance
Inspired by a poem (Poliziano) and classical statue Aphrodite, he revived the theme of the female nude in his elegant and romantic representation of Venus.
Donatello, 1445-1450, Bronze, italian renaissance
Giant equestrian portrait of Venetian general (Erasmo de Narni), is based on statues of ancient Roman emperors mounted on horseback. The orb symbolizes world rule.
Fra Angelico, 1440-1445, fresco, italian renaissance
Painted for the Dominician monks of San Marco, it is simple and direct. The figures and architecture have a pristine clarity that benefits their function as devotional images.
Last Supper
Andrea Del Castagno, 1447, fresco, italian renaissance
Judas sits isolated based on the Gospel of Saint John. The figures are small compared to the setting, reflecting Castagno's preoccupation with the new science of perspective.
Madonna with Child and with Angels
Fra Filippo Lippi, 1455, tempera on wood, italian renaissance
Represented the Virgin and Christ Child in a distinctly worldly manner, carrying the humanization of the holy family further than ever before.
Finding of the True Cross and Proving of the True Cross
Piero della Francesca, 1455, fresco, italian renaissance
He was a skilled geometrician and the author of a treatise of perspective. The almost abstract shames of his architectural settings impart a mood of solemn stillness in the figure. Narrative portraying two different stories.
Christ delivering the keys of the kingdom to Saint Peter
Perugino, 1481-1483, Fresco, italian renaissance
Painted for the Vatican it depicts the event on which the papacy based its authority. The action takes place in a foreground but it is connected to the background by the converging lines of pavement.
Leon Battista Alberti, 1470, italian renaissance
Alberti's design reflects his study in geometry and ancient roman architecture. he locked together a triumphal arch and a roman temple front with pediment.
Room of Newlyweds
Andrea Mategna, 1474, fresco, italian renaissance
He produced it for the duke's palace the first completely consistent illusionistic fresco decoration of an entire room.
Dead Christ
Andrea Mategna, 1501, tempera on canvas, italian renaissance
Overwhelming emotional power, presented a both a study of foreshortening cadaver and intensely poignant depiction of a biblical tragedy.
16th Century
Virgin of the Rocks
Leonardo Da Vinci 1485 Italy Renaissance Oil on wood
Holy figures are united by gestures in a pyramidal composition, light-infused environment.
Last Supper
1495-1498, Italy Renaissance, Fresco
Christ annonces that one of his disciples will betray him, and each one reacts.
Mona Lisa
Leonardo da Vinci , 1503-1505, Italy Renaissance
Oil on wood
Uses atmospheric perspective and chiaroscuro, portrait of a Florentine woman, engages the viewer psychologically.
The Fetus and Lining of the Uterus
Leonardo da Vinci, 1510, Italy Renaissance
Pen and ink on paper
Shows analytical anatomical studies through drawing.
Madonna in the Meadow
Raphael, 1505-1506, Italy Renaissance, Oil on panel
Emulates Da Vinci's pyramidal composition but not his mystery, Virgin in a well-lit landscape, shows grace dignity, and beauty.
School of Athens
Raphael, 1509-1511, Italy Renaissance, Fresco
Raphael included himself, gathering of great philosophers ands scientists, interior resembles Saint Peter's, part of the Vatican palace.
Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1501-1504, Italy, Renaissance, Marble
David in heroic classical nudity, capturing the tension of Lysippan athletes, Hellenistic emotion, also called the "Giant", portrays Florentine independence and liberty.
Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo Buonarroti , 1473, Italy Renaissance
Commissioned by Pope Julius II, subjects taken from Genesis and depict the Creation and Fall of humankin
Creation of Adam
Michelangelo Buonarroti , 1511-1512, Italy Renaissance, Fresco
Detail of the Sistine Chapel, life leaps to Adam from the extended hand of God, recalls the communication between gods and heroes in the classical myths.
Last Judgement
Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1534-1541, Italy Renaissance, Fresco
Altar of the Sistine Chapel, terrifying vision of the fate that awaits sinners, Buonarroti placed himself on the flayed skin Saint Bartholomew holds.
Donato D'Angelo Bramento, 1502 , Italy Renaissance
Temple in Rome, revived classical style in architecture, "little temple" inspired by the ruins of Roman round temples in Italy.
Saint Peter's
Reconstruction -> Michelangelo Buonarroti/Giacomo Della Porta 1546-1564/1590, Italy Renaissance
Ogival dome constructed after Michelangelo's death
Villa Rotonda
Villa Rotonda

Andrea Palladio
Italy Renaissance
Four identical facades with each one resembling a Roman temple with a columnar porch, a great dome-covered rotunda is in the center modeled from the Pantheon.
Pastoral Symphony
Giorgioni Da Castelfranco, 1508, Italy Renaissance, Oil on canvas
Used poesia, artist evokes a pastoral mood, characters symbolize the poet and his poetry, and his muses.
Assumption of the Virgin
Titian, 1516-1568, Italy Renaissance, Oil on wood
Depiction of the Virgin Mary's ascent to Heaven, light conveyed through color, the golden clouds seem to glow and radiate light into the church.
Venus of Urbino
Titian , 1538, Italy Renaissance, Oil on canvas
Set the standard for representations of the reclining female nude, title elevates to the status of classical mythology, probably represents a courtesan in her bedchamber.
Descent from the Cross
Jacopo Da Pontormo , 1525-1528, Italy Renaissance
Oil on wood
Mannerist painting that concentrated on the voids of the painting rather than the masses., figures are along a vertical axis, figures cast gazes on all directions, contrasting colors add dynamism and complexity.
Madonna with the Long Neck
Parmigianino, 1535, Italy Renaissance, Oil on wood
The Virgin displays the stylish elegance of mannerism, small oval head, long, slender neck, attenuated hands, and curving body.
Portrait of the Artist's Sisters and Brother
Sofonisba Anguissola, 1555, Italy Renaissance
Informal group portrait, used relaxed poses and expression, older sister shows the dignity for the occasion, boy looks quizzically at the portraitist, and the other girl diverts her attention toward something on the left.
Abduction of the Sabine Women
Giovanni Da Bologna, 1583, Italy Renaissance, Marble
Designed to be seen from multiple viewpoints, drawn from the history of Rome, how early Romans kidnapped wives from the Sabines, includes references to Laocoon.
Last Supper
Tintoretto, 1594, Italy Renaissance, Oil on canvas
Filled with emotional power, a deep spiritual vision, and dramatic lighting, Venetian color schemes, engaged viewers as part of the Counter-Reformation, includes Mannerist elements like visual complexity and imbalanced composition.
Christ in the House of Levi
Paolo Veronese, 1573, Italy Renaissance, Oil on canvas
Formerly called the Last Supper, color and majestic classical settings, symmetrical balance, ordered architectonics, avoided solid colors
Isenheim Altarpiece
Matthias Grunewald, 1510-1515, Germany Renaissance, Oil on panel and painted and gilt lime wood
Meant for a monastic hospital, panels deal with terrible illnesses and miraculous healing, hope, and salvation, center shrine carved by Nikolaus Hagenauer 1490, inside depicts five temptation of Saint Anthony as macabre creatures in a dark landscape.
Four Apostles
Albrecht Durer, 1526, Germany Renaissance, Oil on panel
Demonstrates Lutheran beliefs through positioning of the apostles, Saint Peter plays a secondary role, Peter and John read from the Bible, the Bible is open to the passage that emphasizes the Word of God, includes Luther's German translation of the New Testament's quotes.
The Fall of Man
Albrecht Durer, 1504, Germany Renaissance, Engraving
Reflects Vitruvian theory of human proportions, two nude figures based on ancient idealized statues set in a landscape influenced by naturalism.
The French Ambassadors
Hans Holbein the Younger, 1533, English Renaissance, Oil and tempera on panel
Shows two humanists with objects that represent their learning and included an anamorphic skull as a reminder of death.
Chateau de Chambord
Commissioned by Francis I, 1519, France Renaissance
Served as country house for royalty, surrounded by a moat, plan includes a central square block with four corridors, central staircase, and four round towers
Money-Changer and His Wife
Quinten Massys, 1514, Netherlands Renaissance, Oil on panel
Taught balance between the material world and spiritual life through a secular financial transaction.
Meat Still-Life
Pieter Aertsen, 1551, Netherlands Renaissance, Oil on panel
Balanced images of gluttony with allusions to salvation, Joseph leads a donkey carrying Mary and the Christ Child in the background.
Caterina Van Hemessen, 1548, Netherlands, Renaissance, Oil on panel
First known northern European self-portrait by a woman, represented herself as a confident artist interrupting her work to address the viewer.
Hunters in the Snow
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1465, Netherlands Renaissance, Oil on panel
One of six paitings illustrating seasonal changes, landscape with fantastical alpine background, draws the viewer diagonally, mastery of line, shape, and composition.
The Burial of Count Orgaz
El Greco, 1586, Spainish Renaissance, Oil on canvas
Blend of Byzantine and Italian Mannerism, dramatic use of light foreshadowed Baroque, intense emotional content captures the passion of Spanish Catholicism.
Saint Peter's
Carlo Maderno, 1606-1612, Italian Baroque
Projecting columns mount dramatically to the emphasized pediment-capped central section.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1633-1624, Italian Baroque , Gilded bronze
Marks the tomb of Saint peter and the high altar of the church.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1624, Italian Baroque, Marble
Important role of time, emotion packed statue, evolves from time and space.
Cornaro Chapel
Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1645-1652, Italian Baroque
Used his knowledge of theater and used architecture, sculpture, and painting of the church's sacred space in Santa Maria della Vittoria.
Ecstasy of Saint Theresa
Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1645-1652, Italian Baroque, Marble
Passionate depiction of Saint Teresa that agrees with Ignatius Loyola's ideas that devotion and piety could be increased through the recreation of spiritual experience.
San Carlo
Francesco Borromini, 1665-1676 ,Italian Baroque
Rejected traditional notion of a facade and set the facade in undulating motion by mixing concave and convex elements.
Conversion of Saint Paul
Caravaggio, 1601, Italian Baroque, Oil on canvas
Used perspective, chiaroscuro, and dramatic lighting to bring viewers in to the painting's space.
Calling of Saint Matthew
Caravaggio, 1597-1601, Italian Baroque, Oil on canvas
Contrast of light and dark, Christ is cloaked in mysterious shadow and can barely be seen, he summons Levi the tax collector to a higher calling.
Judith Slaying Holofernes
Artemisia Gentileschi, 1614-1620, Italian Baroque
Oil on canvas
Involves heroic women, the controlled highlights on the action recall Caravaggio's paintings and increase the drama.
Loves of the Gods
Annibale Caracci, 1597-1601, Italian Baroque
Located at Palazzo Farnes, mythological scenes resemble easel paintings on a wall, quadro riportato.
Glorification of Saint Ignatius
Fra Andrea Pozzo, 1691-1694, Italian Baroque, Fresco
Illusion that Heaven is opening up was created by continuing the church's architecture into the the vault
Saint Serapion
Francisco de Zurbarán, 1628, Spanish Baroque, Oil on canvas
Tragic death of a saint, light creates dramatic impact, Spanish monk's coarse features label his as common and made it empathic for a wide audience.
Water Carrier of Seville
Diego Velázquez, 1619, Spanish Baroque, Oil on canvas
Genre scene that seems to have a deeper significance, contrast of light and dark reveals Caravaggio influence.
Las Meninas.
Diego Velázquez, 1656, Spanish Baroque, Oil on canvas
Meant to elevate himself and painting through this complex work with contrasts, mirrored spaces, and picture spaces.
Elevation of the Cross
Peter Paul Rubens, 1610, Flemish Baroque, Oil on panel
Triptych, foreshortened anatomy, violent action, power from heroic exertion, emotional and physical tension.
Arrival of Marie de' Medici
Peter Paul Rubens, 1622-1625, Flemish Baroque, Oil on canvas
Glorifies the patron, allegorical picture of robust figures in an opulent setting, the sean and sky are joyful at the queen's arrival in France.
Charles I Dismounted
Anthony Van Dyck, 1635, Flemish Baroque, Oil on canvas
Depicted an absolute monarch's portrait at a sharp angles in order for the monarch to look like he is looking down on the viewer.
Archers of Saint Hadrian
Frans Hals, 1633, Dutch Baroque, Oil on canvas
He solved the problem of adequately representing each individual in a group portrait while retaining action and variety in the painting as a whole.
The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq
Rembrandt Van Rijin, 1642, Dutch Baroque, oil on canvas
His dramatic use of light contributes to the animation of this militia group portrait in which the artist showed the company scurrying about in the act of organizing themselves for a parade.
Self Portrait
Rembrandt Van Rijin, 1659/60, Dutch Baroque, oil on canvas
He had interest in revealing the human soul and it is evident in the careful attention given to his expressive face. The controlled use of light and the nonspecific setting contribute to his force.
Christ with the Sick around Him
Rembrandt Van Rijin, 1649, Dutch Baroque, etching
New printmaking medium, it is seen in his expert use of light and dark to draw attention to the Christ as he preaches compassionately to the blind and lime.
Self Portrait
Judith Leyster, 1630, oil on canvas, Dutch/Baroque
She wears an elegant attire instead of a painter's smock, placing socially as a member of a well to do family, an important aspect of her identity.
View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen
Jacob Van Ruisdael, 1670, oil on canvas, Dutch/Baroque
He captured as specific view of Haarlem, its windmills, and Saint Bavo church, but he also imbued the landscape with a quiet serenity that seem almost spiritual.
Alegory of the Art of Painting
Jan Vermeer, 1670-75, oil on canvas, Dutch Baroque
He used both mirrors and the camara obscure to depict opulent 17th Century Dutch domestic interiors so convincingly. He understood the science of color.
Vanitas Still Life
Pieter Claesz, 1630, oil on canvas, dutch baroque
Reflects the pride of Dutch citizens and their possessions. The skull and timepiece symbolize life's transcience.
Flower Still Life
Rachel Ruysch, 1700, oil on canvas, dutch baroque
Et in Arcadia Ego
Nicolas Poussin, 1665, Oil on canvas, French Baroque
Landscape with Cattle and Peasants
Claude Lorrain, 1629, oil on canvas, French Baroque
Louis XIV
Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701, oil on canvas, French Gothic
Hall of Mirrors (Versailles)
Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun, 1680, French Gothic
Saint Paul's Cathedral
Sir Christofer Wren, 1675-1710, English Gothic
Interior of Vierzehnheiligen
Balthasar Neumann, 1743-1772, German Baroque

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