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ch. 8 online quiz


Scholars of critical criminology are more likely to examine ______ trends and patterns rather than perform surveys and analyze data

structural critical criminology

________ theory states the relationship between law and capitalism is unidirectional

capitalist bourgeoisie

The owners of the means of production are the _______

left realism

_______ holds that street criminals prey on the poor and disenfranchised, thus making the poor doubly abused, first by the capitalist system and then by members of their own class

George Vold

_______ argued that laws are created by poltically oriented groups, who seek the government's assistance to help them defend their rights and protect their interests.

Reintegrative shaming

_______occurs when disapproval is extended to an offenders evil deeds, while at the same time those offenders who can be reaccepted by society are cast as respected people.

Instrumental theorists

______view criminal law and the criminal system as instruments for controlling the poor, have-not members of society.


Conflict promotes crime by creating a social atmosphere in which the ______ is a mechanism for controlling dissatisfied, have-not members of society while the wealthy maintains their power.

historical analysis

Critical criminologists are more likely to examine _______ rather than to use more empirical methods, such as surveys and data analysis.


The _____ process begins by redefining crime in terms of a conflict among the offender, the victim, and affected community.

peacemaking criminology

The purpose of _______________ is to promote a peaceful and just society.


Conflict theorists believe this occurs when people are thrust outside of the economic mainstream, forcing a larger portion of the population to live in areas conductive to crime

Critical criminology

The view that the inter-group conflict and rivalry that exists in every society causes crime is known as_________

state crime

is acts defined by law as criminal and committed by state officials, either elected or appointed, in persuit of their jobs as government representatives

Preemptive deterrence

______ is an approach in which community organization efforts eliminate or reduce crime before police involvement becomes necessary


theorists who view the law as used to maintain the long-term interests of the capitalist system and to control members of any class who threaten its existence are known as_____

patriarchal system

Gender differences can be traced to the development of private property and male domination of the laws of inheritance, which led to a ____________ of male control over property and power.


______ thrusts people outside of the economic mainstream forcing them to live in areas conducive to crime


According to critical criminologists, crime is a _______ concept designed to protect the power and position of the upper classes at the expense of the poor.

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