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Sociology Final Exam Terms
Terms in this set (44)
-One's place in society is determined by achievements such as education, occupation, etc. Location allows for social mobility.
-Groups of people who share similar socio-economic level (position/status) in a stratification system.
Social Reproduction of Class
Slide 33- Social inequalities
Another category of distinction based on distinctive cultural or nationality attributes. "...refers to shared lifestyle informed by cultural, historical, religious, and/or national affiliations"
Social construct to identify certain groups of individuals based on perceived physical attributes.
Forms of racism
Racism: Ideology, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors and institutional arrangements that presumes the superiority of one racial group to another.
Sexism: doctrine of sexual superiority that one "sex" is superior to another "sex".; Sexism or gender discrimination is prejudice and/or discrimination based on a person's perceived sex or gender; the belief that one sex (usually the male) is naturally superior to the other and should dominate most important areas of political, economic, and social life.
Forms of sexism
-Unequal distribution of income (U.S. Dept of Labor, U.S. Census): women largely make 75% of what men make; within same job upwards to 80/90%.
-Differences in jobs held: Women and men are more likely to inhabit jobs typically held female and male respectively
-Unequal distribution of housework. (1992, 2004, 2013); although more men are doing typically female type chores, women still spend more time doing household chores (1 HOUR MORE)
-Differences in children's play and chores (Lever, 1978; 1992; 2002).: Children are socialized and participate in chores, games and toys that are typically gender specific
Structures that meet the basic needs of society; stable clusters of values, norms, statuses, roles and expectations that develop around and designed to meet the basic needs of society.
Index of dissimilarity
-The standard measure of segregation is the Index of dissimilarity (D), which captures the degree in which two groups are evenly spread among census tracts in a given city. Evenness is defined with respect to the racial composition of the city as a whole.
-The index ranges from 0 to 100, give the percentage of one group who would have to move to achieve an even residential pattern - one where every tract replicates the group composition of the city.
-A value of 60 or above is considered very high.
Traits linked by culture to biological sex (masculinity, femininity); refers to the social construction of male and female roles
The way a person sees themselves as males or females within a particular culture; It is how you make sense of gender in your head
Attitudes, activities and expectations linked by culture to biological sex.
A legally-sanctioned relationship that often involves economic cooperation as well as normative sexual behavior and childbearing
Forms of Marriage
Polygamy: A marriage that joins one person to with two or more others.
-Polyandry: a form of polygamy where there is a marriage that joins one female with two or more males.
-Polygyny: a form of polygamy where is a marriage or sexual union that joins one male with two or more females
Marriage between different social categories (marriage outside ones social group; e.g., different race, different class)
Marriage between two people in the same social category (marriage within ones social group; e.g., same race, same class)
Parenting style or parenting practice marked by a parent's attempts to foster their child's talents by incorporating organized activities in their children's lives.
Theory suggesting that people will be prevented from engaging in deviant behavior if they judge the costs to outweigh the benefits
Deviance is the violation of a social norm. It is relative in both time and context. Crime is a violation of a legal statute.
-Differential Association (Social Learning)
-Stress/Structural Constraints (Functionalism)
-Labeling Theory (Conflict/Interactionism)
-Social Control or Control Theory
Family unit including parent-child nuclear family and other relatives, such as grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins
Family unit composed of two parents and the children (at least one child)
Marriage and exclusivity between two partners or the practice of being married to one person at a time (e.g., U.S.)
The process by which behaviors and individuals are transformed into crime and criminals
A structured system of social inequality (organized hierarchy)
-Principles of Social Stratification
1. Stratification is characteristic of all societies.
2. Although universal, forms of stratification vary.
3. Stratification persists across generations.
4. It is supported by societal beliefs.
5. It has consequences for individuals life chances
-Perspectives on Social Stratification
1. Structural-Functionalism: social stratification is functional consequence of the society: it is functional and meritocratic
2. Power-Conflict/Conflict: social stratification is created to benefit/reward some and harm others
3. Social Reproduction Theory: Focus on the processes that contribute to the perpetuation of social stratification and class.
Refers to movement within the social structure, from one position or status to another.
-Openness: society that allows for significant social mobility (Class, Modern societies)
-Closed: society that does not allow for social mobility (Caste. Slavery, Pre-industrial)
One's place in the social hierarchy is determined at birth (e.g. race, gender, etc.); there is little movement (social mobility) across strata.
Refers to a condition where a person does not have the minimum amount of income needed to meet the minimum requirements for one or more basic living needs over an extended period of time.
-wealth includes total value of things families own minus their debts.
-Wealth is seen as an indicator of family well-being.
-"Wealth represents a more permanent capacity to secure advantages in the short and long term and it is transferred across generations."
-In essence: Just as wealth perpetuates social class inequality, so it does for racial inequality.
Culture of Poverty Thesis
Refers to a social theory that explains the cycle of poverty. It is based on the concept that the poor have a unique value system and the poor remain in poverty because of their adaptations to the burdens of poverty
An economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation
Exaggerated images associated with various racial and ethnic groups.
Predisposition to evaluate a perceived racial and/or ethnic group in a negative way.
Behavior that treats groups unequally.
Discrimination based on skin color is a form of -typically prejudice or discrimination against individuals with a dark skin tone
Seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object. In this entry, the focus is primarily on sexual objectification, objectification occurring in the sexual realm
Those who posit the viewpoint that race is no longer important is an attempt to maintain white privilege without appearing to be racist. He identifies four frames of color blindness
- Abstract liberalism: the idea that liberal notions, such as equality, which was a cornerstone of the civil rights movement, are now used to oppose affirmative action on the grounds that all groups should be treated the same.
- Naturalization: the idea that racial patterns such as informal segregation are natural, e.g., black preference to live in more black communities is only natural.
- Cultural racism: the idea that norms within the black culture account for racial inequality.
- Minimization of racism: the idea that racism ended with the passage of the civil rights legislation.
Form of racism expressed subtly and indirectly through feelings of discomfort, uneasiness, and fear, which motivates avoidance rather than blatant discrimination.
Denoting or relating to a person whose self-identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender.
Advantages that come with being a member of the majority/dominant group often invisible
"Collection of unearned cultural, political, economic, and social advantages and privileges possessed by people of Anglo-European descent or by those who pass as such". Desmond and Emirbayer (2010)
-Whites having greater access to housing
-More and better medical care
-Greater access to cultural, legal, political and economic resources.
Two or more persons including the householder, who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption and who live together as one household
-Families are so diverse today that it is difficult to come to any consensus on what is a family
An unequal distribution of social rewards in society
Measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution.
- 0.0 = equality
- 1.0 = inequality
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