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123 terms

5th Science Ch 6 Cycles of Life, Biomes, ecosystem change

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evaporation
the process in which a liquid changes into a gas
water vapor
water in its gas state
condensation
the process in which a gas changes into a liquid
precipitation
any form of water that falls to the Earth
water cycle
the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air. Ex: precipitation, runoff, condensation, evaporation
nitrogen cycle
the transfer of nitrogen between the atmosphere and soil, plants, and animals. Ex: ammonia, bacteria, proteins, fertilizers, fossil fuels
runoff
water from rainfall that is not absorbed into the soil and instead flows into streams or lakes
groundwater
water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
Biome
one of the Earth's large ecosystems, each with it's own kind of climate, soil, plants, and animals
Desert
A sandy or rocky biome, with little precipitation and plant life. This biome covers most of the western part of the United States.
Tundra
a large, treeless plain in the artic regions where the ground is frozen all year
Taiga
a cool forest biome of conifers in the upper Northern Hemisphere
Tropical Rainforest
a hot, humid biome near the equator, with much rainfall and a large variety of life. This biome supports the most animal life.
Temperate Rain Forest
a biome with lots of rain and a cool climate (mild climate and a great deal of rain)
grassland
a biome where grasses, not trees are the main plant life
plankton
organisms that float freely on the water in aquatic ecosystems and are unable to swim
nekton
organisms that swim through the water in aquatic ecosystems (can be large active swimmers, such as fish and whales, in water ecosystems)
benthos
organisms that live at the bottom of an aquatic ecosystem
intertidal zone
the shallowest part of the ocean ecosystem, where the ocean floor is covered and uncovered as the tide goes in and out
estuary
the boundary where a fresh water ecosystem meets a saltwater ecosystem.
water cycle
the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid
evaporation
the change of a liquid into a gas below the boiling point
condensation
the changing of a gas into a liquid
precipitation
any form of water that falls from the atmosphere to the ground
watershed
the area from which water is drained; a river that contributes water to a river or river system
runoff
precipitation that flows across the lands surface or falls into rivers or streams
groundwater
precipitation that seeps into the ground and is stored in tiny holes, or pores, in soil and rocks
carbon cycle
the continuous exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen amoung living things
nitrogen cycle
the continuous trapping of nitrogen gas into compounds in the soil and its return to the air
compost
the mixture of dead plant material that can be used as fertilizer
extinct species
a species that has died out completely
endangered species
a species that is in danger of becoming extinct
threatened species
a species that is in danger of becoming endangered
succession
the process of one ecosystem changing into a new and different ecosystem
primary succession
the beginning of a community where few, if any, living things exist
secondary succession
the beginning of a new community where an earlier community already existed
pioneer species
the first species living in an otherwise lifeless area
pioneer community
the first community living in a lifeless area
climax community
the final stage of succession in an area, unless a major change happens
An example of a benthos
a barnacle
Why would more organisms live in shallow water because...
there is more oxygen, and also more sunlight
which type of ecosystem has both fresh and salt water?
estuary
what's an example of a pioneer community?
moss
Nertic Zone
the ocean zone where coral reefs and kelp forests are located
which type of biome has the greatest diversity of plants and animals?
tropical rain forest
Where does the energy that is needed for the water cycle to take place come from?
the Sun
Why can't trees grow in the tundra?
the cold temperature and frozen ground prevent the growth of trees in the tundra
What does the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil turn nitrogen gas into?
ammonia
What is the main difference between primary and secondary succession?
primary succession begins with bare rock
what is it called when a liquid changes into a gas?
evaporation
Compared with a temperate forest a grassland has...
a lot less rainfall
why are most animals endangered?
because of habitat loss
taiga
a cold and snowy biome with lots of conifers
deciduous forest
a biome with a temperate climate and trees with broad leaves
tropical rainforest
a biome that is hot and humid and the seasons change very little and there are many different kinds of plants and animals
tundra
a biome where it is cold and there is little precipitation. A layer of permafrost is on the top layer of the ground in this biome.
grassland
a biome with lots of grasses and the animals hide in the grasses. Uneven precipitation and warm summers are characteristic of this biome
Where is the tundra located?
at the top of the world around the North Pole
Large amounts of plant life provide habitats for many species of animals in the _____________________________biome
tropical forest
What are the 4 layers in the tropical forests?
emergent layer, canopy, under story, and forest floor
Nocturnal animals
sleep in the day and hunts at night
Where do animals get water if they never drink the water?
seed and plants
What are the challenges facing animals in the desert?
there is not much water and the weather is hot and dry
Why does the rain that falls in the desert evaporate quickly?
The heat of the hot hot sun turns it into a gas
What are the cool deserts like?
They are hot during the summer, cold during the winter, and sometimes known to get snow.
Biome with extreme heat, dryness & cold nights
Desert
What must animals in the desert survive?
They must survive extreme heat, searing sun, and a lack of water.
What are the main kinds of plants in the grassland?
grasses
What are some animals that live in the grassland biome?
insects, zebras, elephants, and giraffes
Air Pressure is high when the weather is __________.
cold and dry
Drizzle differs from rain in that the droplets are _____________.
smaller than 0.02 inches
What are some plants that live in the Propical Rain Forest?
driptips, mangroves, bamboo, banana
What are some animals that live in the Tropical Rain Forest?
chimpanzee, common tree shrew, gorilla
Where is the Tropical Rain Forest located?
a little in the USA, in Africa, and South America
What is the climate like in the Tropical Rain Forest?
the average temperature is 70-85 degrees F. The precipatation is 80-400 inches per year.
About how much of the Earth's animals and plants live in the Tropical Rain Forest?
1/2 of the Earth's plants and animals
What is the climate like in the Tundra?
It receives an average of 10 inches precipitation per year. The average annual temperature is 10-20 degress F.
Desert Biome
less than 10 inches of precipitation per year; may be hot or cold; has a rocky or sandy soil; plants adapt by storing water; many animals are nocturnal, so they are not moving around during the hot days, and the animals that live there don't need much water to stay alive
What kind of trees are in the deciduous forest?
Broad leaf trees like oaks & maples
deciduous
trees and shrubs that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season in the fall
temperate
free from extremes of weather or climate
What happened to the bison in the grassland?
They were hunted and killed almost to extinction for their heavy thick fur.
What does the deciduous forest look like in the winter?
It is usually covered with a blanket of snow and all of the deiciduous trees have lost their leaves.
What causes the seasons to change in a biome?
The tilt of the Earth on its axis causes the Earth to either be closer or further from the sun. The closer a hemisphere is to the sun the warmer the season is. The further the hemisphere is from the sun, the cooler or colder that hemisphere is.
What 2 biomes blend at camp Goddard?
the deciduous forest and the grassland
What does the weather of a biome mean?
it is the day to day temperature and precipitation
What does the climate of a ciome mean?
It is the average temperature and precipitation of an area for a year.
How many seasons does the deciduous forest have?
it has 4 seasons: winter, spring, summer & fall or autumn
what is the most common tree in a taiga?
a conifer (a tree that has pine cones)
Rainforest
this is a warm, wet biome where plants keep their leaves all year. The most different types of plants and animals live in this biome.
What are the layers of the rainforest biome?
There are 4 layers: emergent layer, canopy, understory and forest floor
temperate rainforest
wet coastal forests that are very moist and shrouded in fog
tropical rainforest
forests which receive over 80 inches of rainfall a year and are very warm and trees do not lose their leaves during the year.
when in the tundra is water available?
only for a little while in the summer when it has rained and the water cannot soak into the ground because it is frozen
What is happening to the rainforests?
they are disappearing because the trees are being cut down.
permafrost
layer of permanently frozen ground just below the topsoil
The process of naturally recycling water on Earth I called the
Water cycle
When cooled enough water vapor
Condenses into tiny water droplets
Heat energy makes water
Evaporate
Plants give some of their water back to the atmosphere through their
Leaves
Droplets that become large and heavy that they no longer stay up in the air fall to earths surface as
Evaporation
Water flowing downhill across the surface of earth is called
Runoff
Water stored in soil and rock is
Groundwater
The contains more then
97% of worlds water
Dead trees provide
Elements
Organisms that recycle matte in dead organisms are
Decomposer
Decomposers break down wood into
Carbon dioxide and ammonia
Nitrogen is found in
Fertilizers substances that add minerals to the soil
The gas added to air is by a lot of living things are called
Carbon dioxide
Plants use carbon to make sugers,starches,protein during
Photosynis
Animal use carbon to make sugers,starches,protein to make their own
Body chemicals
Animals get nitrogen by eating
Protein
Plants ger nitrogen by absorbing it from the
Soil
Plants use nitrogen to make
Protein
Decomposers break down the proteins of dead plants into the nitrogen containing substance
Ammonia
Soil bacteria change ammonia into
Nitrites
Amimals wastes contain
Nitrogen componds
Nitrates are turned back into nitrogen gas by
Bacteria
Sunlight is a
Inexhaustible resource
The buliding blocks of products are
Raw minerals
A resource that can be replaced like a tree is
Renewable resources
We can convert raw minerals by
Recycling them
Recycled materials are sent to
Recycling centers