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IB SEHS Final
Terms in this set (116)
Provides support and protection. It includes the skull, mandible, ribs, sternum, spine, and coccyx.
Holds and supports limbs of the body. It includes the arms, legs, hands, feet, knees, clavicle, scapula, and pelvis.
What are the four types of bone?
Irregular, flat, long, and short.
What is an example of an irregular bone?
What is an example of a flat bone?
What is an example of a long bone?
What is an example of a short bone?
The talus (heel of foot).
Draw and annotate the structure of a long bone.
What is the periosteum?
A dense layer of vascular tissue enveloping bones.
What is a spongy bone?
It's found at the end of the bone and provides structural support and facilitates movement of the joints and limbs.
What is the articular cartilage?
It is smooth, white tissue with a function of giving lubricated surface for low friction.
What is the diaphysis?
It is the main part of the bone.
What is the epiphysis?
It grows separately from the shaft.
What is bone marrow?
It is a soft, fatty substance found in cavities of the bone.
What is marrow cavity?
It is where red/yellow bone marrow is stored.
It's the closest part of the trunk/head. Ex. your elbow is closer to the center than the hand is.
It is the farthest end from the trunk/head. Ex. your elbow is further away from the center than the shoulder is
It is above or near the head. Ex. the shoulder joint is superior to the elbow joint.
It is towards the feet. Ex. the appendix is inferior to the transverse colon.
It is towards the mid-line of the body. Ex. your nose is medial to the ears.
It is away from the mid-line of the body. Ex. your eye is lateral to the nose.
It is the front side of the body. Ex. your kneecap is located on the front side of the leg.
It is the back side of the body. Ex. the triceps are posterior to biceps brachii.
It connects muscles to bone.
It connects bone to bone to form a joint.
It adds protection by shock absorption.
A place where two bones come together.
What is a fixed joint?
It is very stable and allows no observable movement. An example would be the pelvis and cranium.
What is a cartilaginous joint?
It allows slight movement and it is near the ends of a bone. An example would be the manubrium and the sternum.
What is a synovial joint?
It is the most common and allows a lot of movement. There are six different types.
What is a synovial joint capsule?
It has an outer and inner layer. It is filled with synovial fluid.
What is the synovial membrane?
It lines the inner surface of capsules.
What is the synovial fluid?
It is fluid found in the cavities of bones, it also has an egg-white consistency.
What is the bursae?
It is a fluid-filled sac.
What is the meniscus?
It is the common injury of forceful twisting, causing knee tissue to tear.
It is the attachment site where muscle, nerves, etc. meet.
It is the point of attachment of a skeletal muscle.
What are the general characteristics of muscle tissue?
Contractibility, extensibility, elasticity, atrophy, hypertrophy, fed by capillaries, and controlled by nerves.
The ability of muscle to shorten.
The ability of muscle to lengthen.
The ability of muscle to return to normal size.
The wasting away of muscles.
The increase in size of muscle tissue.
It is under voluntary control and has a striate appearance.
Involuntary and striated. It can be found in the walls of the heart.
It is connect to the skeleton and helps move limbs.
It is fibrous, elastic tissue surrounding muscle.
It is connective tissue around muscle fibers.
It is connective tissue surrounding myocyte.
It is composed of actin and myosin.
It is contractile threads found in muscle.
Unit of myofibrils in striated muscle.
Protein that forms contractile filaments.
Label a diagram of a motor unit.
What is the contractile unit of muscle called?
What is the H Zone?
It is the region of a striated muscle fiber with only thick myosin filaments.
What is the A Band?
It is the interaction between actin/myosin and responsible for muscle contraction.
What is the Z Line?
It is formed between adjacent sarcomeres.
It typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body.
It is a nerve cell in which impulses received are transmitted into the body.
It contains the nucleus and connects to dendrites.
Contains genetic material.
Junction between two nerve cells.
It is between a motor neuron and muscle fiber.
What is Type 1 muscle contraction?
This is slow nerve transmission, small muscles, and no fatigue.
What is Type 2a muscle contraction?
This is a fast oxidative motor unit that have fast transmission, stronger muscle forces, and no fatigue.
What is Type 2b muscle contraction?
This is the fastest contraction, and largest force, but gets fatigued at a fast race.
Closing of joint angle around transverse axis.
Opening of joint angle around transverse axis.
Opening of joint angle around anteroposterior axis.
Closing of joint angle around anteroposterior axis.
Rotation of forearms so that palms face inferior.
Rotation of forearms so palms face superior.
Turning around long axis.
Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction.
Turns ankle so plantar faces lateral.
Joint action at the ankle where the foot is turned medially.
Walking on heels.
Standing on toes.
What are the 5 types of muscle contraction?
Isotonic, concentric, eccentric, isokinetic, isometric.
Force remains constant during the movement of the body affected by the muscle.
This results in the movement of one or more body segment. The rotational effect of the force from the muscle has to be greater than that of resistant to be overcome.
This is when the muscle contracts, but the rotational effect of the muscle force is exactly equal to that provided by the resistance.
This is when a muscle contracts so that the body segment to which it is attached moves at a constant speed around the joint.
This is when the muscle contracts, but the rotational effect of the muscle force is less than that of the resistance.
Explain the term reciprocal inhibition?
Muscles change from agonist and antagonist depending on the certain action. Reciprocal inhibition is when agonist contracts and antagonist relaxes due to spinal cord reflex. This means that the agonist is not being opposed by any muscle torque. It is an automatic action controlled by neurons.
What is DOMS?
Delayed onset muscle soreness is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise.
How are DOMS caused?
It is thought to be caused by eccentric exercise, which causes microtrauma to the muscle fibers. After such exercise, the muscle adapts rapidly to prevent muscle damage, and thereby soreness, if the exercise is repeated.
How can people deal with DOMS?
By exercising less.
Push or pull on an object. Vector.
How far an object travels in a given time. Rate, change of distance. Distance/time. Scalar.
The magnitude of how fast an object is moving and the direction. Displacement change/time. Vector.
How far an object has moved horizontally, vertically, or laterally. Vector.
The rate at which an object changes its speed. Change in velocity/time. Scalar.
If an object has mass it has momentum. The quantity that an object has. Mass of object x velocity. Vector.
Change in momentum. Force x time.
What is the difference between distance and displacement?
Distance describes how far something has traveled, and displacement describes how far something is from where it started. Distance is often a scalar. Displacement is often used with vectors.
What is the difference between weight and mass?
Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in a body. Weight is the measure of the amount of force acting on a mass due to the acceleration due to gravity.
What is the impulse momentum relationship?
An object's change in momentum is equal to its impulse.
What is the center of mass?
The mathematical point around which which the mass of a body or object is distributed.
Explain the change in a body position during sporting activities that can change the position of the center of mass.
These 2 terms are often interchangeable, and for bodies or objects, where the force of gravity does not vary. The 2 centres are in the same place, bodies and sporting elements.
First class levers
Effort, Fulcrum, Resistance/Load.
Second class levers
Effort, Resistance/Load, Fulcrum.
Third class levers
Resistance/Load, Effort, Fulcrum.
Newton's First Law
The Law of Inertia; An object at rest will stay at rest unless an outside force is placed on it.
Newton's Second Law
The Law of Acceleration; This is the relationship between an object's mass, its acceleration, and the applied force.
Newton's Third Law
The Law of Counter Force; For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Explain how Newton's 3 laws apply to sporting activities.
Law 1: (Inertia). An object in motion keeps going unless something stops it. Gravity-golf ball
Law 2: (Acceleration) Baseball player hits a ball with double the force, with a bat double the mass, the ball will speed up.
Law 3: (Action/Reaction) Athlete can jump higher from a solid surface because it opposes his body with as much force in contrast to sand.
Explain the concept of angular momentum in relation to sport activities.
Angular motion is conserved when no outside torques act on a object. As the moment of inertia is decreased the angular relation has to be increased to keep the same angular momentum. - Figure skating: starts with arms stretched out, when arms are brought in (decreasing the moment of inertia) the speed increases.
What are projectiles?
Objects or athletes that are propelled in the air
What is the influence of speed on a projectile?
It is directly related to distance. The greater the speed, the greater the distance.
What is the influence of height on a projectile?
When the release is higher, the projectile will have a greater distance covered, longer spent in the air, and a longer horizontal component that will be acted.
What is the influence of angle on a projectile?
The ideal is 45 degrees. The angle changes the relationship between the horizontal and vertical components of projectile.
Outline the Bernoulli principle with respect to projectile motion.
Movement of a fluid through a pressure difference. With the soccer ball, the pressure is different from the bottom and the top.