Final Exam Vocab Review

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Renewable Resource
A resource that can be replaced relatively quickly by natural processes.
Smog
Urban air pollution composed of a mixture of smoke, fog, and pollutants.
Fossil Fuel
A nonrenewable energy resource formed from dead plants and animals, over millions of years. i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas.
Sustainability
The condition in which human needs are met in a way that a human population can survive indefinitely.
Biodiversity
The number, variety, and genetic variation of organisms living in an area.
Control Group
The group NOT receiving the experimental treatment.
Hypothesis
A testable idea or explanation.
Tectonic Plate
A block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and part of the mantle.
Magma
Molten rock located below Earth's surface.
Biosphere
The part of Earth where life exists.
Hydrosphere
Includes all of the water on or near the Earth's surface.
Atmosphere
A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet.
Coevolution
The process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with each other.
Biotic Factor
Living and once living organisms.
Protists
Single celled organisms that can be animal, plant, or fungi like.
Fungus
Organisms that absorb their nutrients, for example, mushrooms.
Primary Succession
Succession that begins in an area that did not have life before.
Tropical Rainforest
A forest near the equator with large amounts of rain, little temperature change, and the greatest diversity of organisms on Earth.
Permafrost
In arctic regions, the layer of soil that stays frozen.
Temperate Deciduous Forest
A forest with trees that shed their leaves in the fall.
Ecosystem
All the organisms living in an area together and their physical environment.
Benthic Zone
The bottom region of a body of water.
Littoral Zone
The shallow coastal region or shore of a body of water.
Nekton
All free swimming organisms in a body of water.
Benthos
Organisms that live at the bottom of a body of water.
Estuary
An area where fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean.
Photosynthesis
Plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
Population
All members of the same species that live in the same place at the same time.
Symbiosis
A relationship in which two organisms live in close association with each other.
Mutualism
A relationship between two species in which they both benefit.
Immigration
Migration of individuals into an area.
Emigration
Migration of individuals out of an area.
Fertility Rates
The number of births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 in one year.
Endangered Species
A species that has been identified to be in danger of extinction.
Aquifer
A body of rock or sediment that stores ground water.
Groundwater
The water that is beneath the Earth's surface.
Scrubber
A machine that filters some harmful air pollutants out of industrial air emissions.
Ozone
A gas molecule made of 3 oxygen atoms that absorb ultraviolet light.
Greenhouse Effect
Warming of the surface of the Earth by gases absorbing and trapping heat.
Energy Efficiency
The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work.
Environmental Science
The study of the impact of humans on the environment.
Surface Water
All the bodies of water found above the ground.
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