Terms in this set (98)
Why we form relationships?
Attraction, Intimacy, Commitment
Stages of Relational Development
Initiating, Experimenting, Intensifying, Integrating, Bonding, Differentiating, Circumscribing, Stagnating, Avoiding, Terminating
What is Communication Climate?
refers to the social tone of a relationship
recognition, acknowledgment, endorsement
impervious response, irrelevant response, tangential response, impersonal response, ambiguous response, incongruous response
process of protecting our presenting self, our face
messages that we perceive as challenging the image we want to project
reciprocal communication pattern in which messages reinforce on another
What is conflict?
an expressed struggle between resources and interference from the other party in achieving their goals
What are conflict styles?
Avoidance, Accommodation, Competition, Compromise, Collaboration
LOSE-LOSE, occurs when people non assertively ignore or stay away from conflict
LOSE-WIN, occurs when we allow others to have their own way rather than asserting our own point of view
WIN-LOSE, "my way" approach
NEGOTIATED LOSE-LOSE, gives both people at least some of what they want, although both sacrifice part of their goals
WIN-WIN seeks win-win solution to conflict
Conflict Styles in Relational Systems
a pattern of managing disagreements that repeats itself over time: Complementary, Symmetrical, Parallel; Intimate and Aggressive; Conflict Rituals
partners use different but mutually reinforce behaviors
both people use the same tactics
shifts between complementary and symmetrical patterns from one issue to another
What is a family?
a system with two or more interdependent people who have a common history and a present reality, and who expect to influence each other in the future
Types of family communication
Spouses/Partners, Parent-Child, Siblings
Types of couples
Independents, Separates, and Traditionals
Conversation Oriented- families favor an open climate of discussion
Conformity Oriented- family communication stresses uniformity of attitudes, values, and beliefs
Communication in Organization
Formal and Informal Relationships, Face-to-face and mediated relationships
Formal and Informal
formal- subordinates communicate with their bosses
informal- based on friendships, shared personal or career interests, and proximity
Face-to-Face and Mediated
mediated- telephone or email are most common
Leadership and Power
designated leader- person with official titles that indicate authority
power- interpersonal relationships such as reward power
Why do we communicate?
physical needs,identity needs, social needs, practical needs
The notion that words are arbitrary and have no meaning in themselves refers to which characteristic of language?
The fact that the words, "whiskey makes you sick when you're feeling well," when arranged differently, "whiskey, when you're sick, makes you well," create a totally different meaning is related to which rule of language?
The notion that the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak is known as
Research demonstrates that names are more than just a simple means of identification. Name choices can
create a connection between child and his/her namesake, make a powerful statement about cultural identity, be an indicator of status
Language shapes our impression of
credibility, status, power, racism and sexism
All behaviors communicate value
Low self-monitors are usually better at hiding their deception than communicators who are more aware.
The ability to consider more than one possible interpretation for nonverbal behavior is a characteristic of
Which messages are NOT conveyed by clothing?
Analytical and logical
Who has difficulty making sense of mixed messages?
children, poor listeners, people with certain forms of brain damage
Listening is defined as the process of making sense of others' spoken messages.
Hearing is the process that gives meaning, whereas listening is a psychological process.
Recall is related to which component of hearing?
Fatigue or other forms of discomfort can be which barrier to listening?
Restating in your own words what you thought a speaker has told you is known as
According to Charles Berger, for a relationship to exist, the people involved must do all of the following except be aware of each other, take each other into account, exercise some degree of influence on each other, have some agreement of social expectations
all the above
The theory that explains relationship development using an economic model is
Which stage of relational development is
usually brief and follows conventional formulas?
Small talk is the hallmark of which stage of relationship development?
Tactics we use to persuade others to act in a desired way are called ________ strategies.
Although it is impossible to eliminate conflict, there are ways to manage it effectively.
People from high-context, collectivist backgrounds are likely to regard avoidance and accommodation as face-saving ways to handle conflict.
Passive aggression occurs when a communicator expresses dissatisfaction in a disguised manner.
Conflict with a win-lose orientation are always destructive.
Some cultures regard heated debates as a means of being sociable.
Which couple type strives to maintain stability by upholding a conventional belief system that values traditional sex roles, interdependence, and conflict avoidance?
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of how families are like systems?family members are interdependent, a family is more than the sum of its parts, families have systems with larger systems, family systems are affected by their environment
none of the above
During family conflict, the role of the distracter is to
say something irrelevant so the threat will be forgotten
The degree to which families favor an open climate of discussion on a wide array of topics is termed
A great deal of parent-child communication focuses on parents' fulfilling childrens needs. These needs include
nurturance, structuring, belonging, support
What are some communication misconceptions?
not all comm. seeks understanding, more comm. is not always better, comm. will not solve all problems, effective comm. is not a natural ability
Characteristics of competent communication
large repertoire of skills, adaptability, ability to perform skillfully, involvement, empathy/perspective taking, cognitive complexity, self-monitoring
What is culture?
language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn
What are examples of co-cultures?
age, race, sexual orientation, nationality, physical disability, religion, activity
Whats the difference between a low-context and high-context culture?
low context: language
high: subtle, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony
In scientific jargon, any interference with communication is termed noise.
Which of the following is NOT a valid reason for studying communication?
Wanting to manipulate weakness in others
A discernible response to a message is
Which of the following characterizes transactional communication?
Communication must be sent through a channel.
Communication involves communicators' occupying different but overlapping environments.
We may be receiving and responding to messages from another person at the same time that she or he is receiving and responding to us.
Noise may be both physical and psychological.
all the above
Marshall McLuhan's "global village" metaphor suggests that the world's cultures are becoming increasingly disconnected and independent.
Membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture is known as a(n)
The degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and try to stay away from them is known as
Social comparison offers a way of reshaping unsatisfying self concepts, in that we control who is available for comparison.
While children may be born with some social characteristics, self-concept is almost totally determined by social interaction.
Research demonstrates that communicators who believed they were incompetent proved less likely than others to pursue rewarding relationships.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of self-concept?
The communication strategies people use to influence how others view them is called
identity management strategies
Interpretation us a term used by communication theorists to describe the determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions.
Empathy is derived from two Greek words meaning "feeling with." Sympathy has Greek roots that mean "feeling inside."
Self-serving bias is the term used by social scientists to label our tendency to judge ourselves in the most generous terms possible.
Which step of perception is based on the fact that we notice some messages and ignore others?
Exaggerated beliefs associated with a categorizing system are known as
What is cultivation perspective?
patterns and images that effect us by comparing ourselves to others
What is the social comparison theory?
how we fit in socially in comparison to those around us
What are the 3 hypotheses about makeover TV and self concept?
self esteem and: self confidence (neg)
perfection (pos) body dissatisfaction (pos)
What is ethnocentrism?
belief that your culture is the best
What are the 8 types of effective listening responses?
Silent Listening, Questioning, Paraphrasing, Empathizing, Supporting, Analyzing, Evaluating, Advising
You can boost the odds of choosing the best style in each situation by considering three factors
situation, other person, yourself
What was Mead's argument of emotion?
All human behavior stems from a particular culture
What was Ekman's argument of emotion?
6 universal emotions
What was Darwin's argument of emotion?
all people posses ability to convey emotion in the same way
What does FACS stand for?
Facial Action Coding System
What are the primary emotions?
Anger, Contempt, Disgust, Fear, Happiness, Sadness, Surprise
What is nonverbal communication?
messages expressed by nonlinguistic means
What are the poor listening habits?
psuedolistening, stage hogging, selective listening, filling in gaps, insulated listening, defensive listening, ambushing
What are the components of listening?
Hearing, Attending, Understanding, Remembering, Responding
What are the components of emotions?
Physiological changes, nonverbal reactions, cognitive interpretations, verbal expression
What are facilitative emotions?
emotions which contribute to effective functioning
What are debilitative emotions?
emotions which hinder or prevent effective performance
Types of nonverbal communication
oculesics, kinesics, haptics, paralanguage, proxemics
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