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Genetic Engineering

This is for the terminology quiz on Feb. 1.
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Selective Breeding
Method of improving species by allowing only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
Hybridization
Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
Inbreeding
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Polyploidy
Condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Genetic Engineering
Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
Restriction Enzymes
Enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Gel Electrophoresis
Procedure used to detect and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porpous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
Recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
PCR
Technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
Stem Cells
unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells
Biotechnology
The engineering of organisms for useful purposes
Bacteria
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans
Clone
Members of a population of genetically altered organisms produced from a single cell
Transformation
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
Plasmid
Circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
Genetic Marker
A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid (and the foreign DNA) from those that don't
Embryo
Organism in its early stage of development
Transgenic
Term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
Genetic Variability
a measure of the tendency of individual genotypes in a population to vary from one another
DNA Fingerprinting
Analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals
Bioethics
the branch of ethics that studies moral values in the biomedical sciences