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34 terms

Psychology: The Science of Behavior Ch. 1

Psychology: The Science of Behavior 2nd Edition By: R. H. Ettinger; Chapter One Vocabulary
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psychology
the scientific study of the behavior of humans and other animals
bystander apathy
people are less likely to take action or notice something if there are other people around
dualism
created by Descartes; body is divisible, mind is indivisible
physiology
study of bodily processes
empiricism
knowledge is acquired through observation
scientific method
careful observation of events in the world, the formation of predictions based on these observations, and the testing of these predictions by manipulation of variables and systematic observation
Wilhelm Wundt
German physiologist, used introspection for studying mental processes; established the first psychology laboratory
introspection
analyzing one's thoughts and beliefs; unreliable because it altered mental processes
structuralism
developed by Edward Titchener; approach to psychology that attempted to break down experience into its basic elements or structures, using a technique called introspection, in which subjects provided scientific reports of perceptual experiences
William James
particularly interested in trying to understand mental processes that helped humans and other animals adapt to their environments; published "Principles of Psychology"
functionalism
emphasized the practical nature of the mind. Influenced by Darwin's theory of natural selection. Attempts to learn how mental processes, such as learning, thinking, and perceiving, helped people adapt
natural selection
species change or evolve over time as environmental conditions change
Sigmund Freud
developed psychoanalysis as well as catharsis; emphasized the unconscious mind
behaviorism
developed by John Watson; emphasizes the relationship between environmental events and an organism's behavior
John Watson
founded behaviorism; believed it was impossible to study the mind objectively; especially opposed introspection; believed that complex human behavior could be analyzed in terms of simple learned associations
B.F. Skinner
worked with operant conditioning, looked at effects of reinforcement on behavior
Wolfgang Kohler
helped develop Gestalt psychology, argued that it was a mistake to try to break psychological processes into basic components
Gestalt Psychology
approach to psychology that arges that the whole of an experience is different from the sum of its parts; an active force in current investigations of perceptual processes and learning as well as therapy, where it emphasizes the whole person
Humanistic psychology
emphasizes the role of free choice and our ability to make conscious rational decisions about how we live our lives
self-actualization
people have a natural inclination to fulfill their human potential
cognitive psychology
focuses on the ways in which organisms process information; investigates processes such as thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and creativity
developmental psychology
concerned with factors that influence growth and shape behavior throughout the life cycle, from conception through old age
social psychology
concerned with understanding the impact of social environments and social processes of individuals
personality psychology
focuses on exploring the uniqueness of the individual, describing the elements that make up human personality and investigating how personality develops and how it influences peoples activities
experimental psychology
field of specialization in which the primary activity is conducting research
biological psychology
branch of neuroscience that focuses on the relationship between behavior and psychological events within the brain and the rest of the nervous system; also known as physiological psychology
clinical psychology
involved in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral problems
counseling psychology
involved in the diagnosis and treatment of problems of adjustment; focus on less serious problems
educational psychology
concerned with the study and application of learning and teaching methods
school psychology
evaluating and resolving learning and emotional problems
industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology
using psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and management
engineering psychology
creating optimal relationships among people, the machines they create, and the environments they work in
health psychology
the interaction between behavioral factors and physical health
positive psychology
the study of human behavior aimed at discovering and promoting the positive strngths and attrivutes that enable individuals to thrive and succeed