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Psychology: The Science of Behavior 2nd Edition By: R. H. Ettinger; Chapter One Vocabulary


the scientific study of the behavior of humans and other animals

bystander apathy

people are less likely to take action or notice something if there are other people around


created by Descartes; body is divisible, mind is indivisible


study of bodily processes


knowledge is acquired through observation

scientific method

careful observation of events in the world, the formation of predictions based on these observations, and the testing of these predictions by manipulation of variables and systematic observation

Wilhelm Wundt

German physiologist, used introspection for studying mental processes; established the first psychology laboratory


analyzing one's thoughts and beliefs; unreliable because it altered mental processes


developed by Edward Titchener; approach to psychology that attempted to break down experience into its basic elements or structures, using a technique called introspection, in which subjects provided scientific reports of perceptual experiences

William James

particularly interested in trying to understand mental processes that helped humans and other animals adapt to their environments; published "Principles of Psychology"


emphasized the practical nature of the mind. Influenced by Darwin's theory of natural selection. Attempts to learn how mental processes, such as learning, thinking, and perceiving, helped people adapt

natural selection

species change or evolve over time as environmental conditions change

Sigmund Freud

developed psychoanalysis as well as catharsis; emphasized the unconscious mind


developed by John Watson; emphasizes the relationship between environmental events and an organism's behavior

John Watson

founded behaviorism; believed it was impossible to study the mind objectively; especially opposed introspection; believed that complex human behavior could be analyzed in terms of simple learned associations

B.F. Skinner

worked with operant conditioning, looked at effects of reinforcement on behavior

Wolfgang Kohler

helped develop Gestalt psychology, argued that it was a mistake to try to break psychological processes into basic components

Gestalt Psychology

approach to psychology that arges that the whole of an experience is different from the sum of its parts; an active force in current investigations of perceptual processes and learning as well as therapy, where it emphasizes the whole person

Humanistic psychology

emphasizes the role of free choice and our ability to make conscious rational decisions about how we live our lives


people have a natural inclination to fulfill their human potential

cognitive psychology

focuses on the ways in which organisms process information; investigates processes such as thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and creativity

developmental psychology

concerned with factors that influence growth and shape behavior throughout the life cycle, from conception through old age

social psychology

concerned with understanding the impact of social environments and social processes of individuals

personality psychology

focuses on exploring the uniqueness of the individual, describing the elements that make up human personality and investigating how personality develops and how it influences peoples activities

experimental psychology

field of specialization in which the primary activity is conducting research

biological psychology

branch of neuroscience that focuses on the relationship between behavior and psychological events within the brain and the rest of the nervous system; also known as physiological psychology

clinical psychology

involved in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral problems

counseling psychology

involved in the diagnosis and treatment of problems of adjustment; focus on less serious problems

educational psychology

concerned with the study and application of learning and teaching methods

school psychology

evaluating and resolving learning and emotional problems

industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology

using psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and management

engineering psychology

creating optimal relationships among people, the machines they create, and the environments they work in

health psychology

the interaction between behavioral factors and physical health

positive psychology

the study of human behavior aimed at discovering and promoting the positive strngths and attrivutes that enable individuals to thrive and succeed

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