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Arts and Humanities
Linguistics Final Exam
Terms in this set (68)
the study of language use & relationship between context and meaning
ability to produce and understand well-formed, meaningful sentences
define linguistic competence
ability to use sentences appropriately in various communicative interactions
define communicative competence
intended function, linguistic form, effect on listener
what are the three components of speech act?
requesting information, give orders, make threats, give advice
examples of speech acts
performing their function in a literal way
what is a direct speech act?
not performing their function in a literal way
what is an indirect speech act?
take out the garbage
example of direct speech act
you know, the garbage hasn't been taken out in awhile
example of indirect speech act
extended stretches of utterances with meaning
utterances that are situationally appropriate
speaker intends for the listener to think something in particular
opening, topic maintenance, turn taking, closing
what are the components of a conversation
quality, quantity, relation, manner
what are Grice's Maxims?
maxim of quality
don't talk for too long or too little
maxim of quantity
maxim of relation
maxim of manner
when everyone knows a maxim is being broken
what is a flouting?
study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language
the influence of the pronunciation of one phoneme on that of another phoneme
conceptualization, formulation, articulation, self monitoring
what are the four stages of Levelt's Model of Language Production?
grammatical coding, argument features
phonological encoding, number of syllables, stress
priming, tip of the tongue, speech errors
components of speech production
occurs when exposure to a stimulus influences a response to a later stimulus
a word in your mental lexicon but you cannot produce it
tip of the tongue
misperceptions of running speech or lyrics that affect meaning transfer
what are mondegreens?
the inability to hear differences between members of a category
what is categorical perception?
replacing one phoneme in an utterance with noise, knowing the vowel or consonant even when it is not spoken
what is phoneme restoration?
using visual cues to perceive language
what is the McGurk effect?
grammatical sentences that cause problems with processing
what are Garden Path sentences?
using your knowledge of words and the world for interpretation
what is top down processing?
interpretation from the acoustic signal and sensory data
what is bottom up processing?
idea that language is a human behavior that can be shaped by reinforcement
what is the behaviorism theory?
language is innate, a product of biology
what is the nativist theory?
language is a social behavior, communication interaction is crucial
what is the social interactionist theory?
must have some biological disposition for language
children acquire language with interaction
the way parents talk to children to introduce a language, using simple words and phrases
what is child directed speech?
what children typically use before words
shared focus of two individuals on an object
what is joint attention?
begins 6-9 months, repeated sets of syllables
what is babbling?
around 12 months, reflect people, objects, actions
combining two words
occurs around age 2; when the child transitions to multi-word utterances that represent various intentions
occurs 18-24 months old, once vocabulary reaches about 50 words, it suddenly begins to build rapidly (mostly nouns)
whole object principle
when a child learns a new word, they are likely to interpret the word to refer to a whole object rather than one of its parts
children can learn the meaning of verbs based on the syntactic environments of the verbs
what is syntactic bootstrapping?
demonstrates that children apply the correct plural to nouns they have never heard before
what is the Wug test?
children use 2 or more words in sentences and words not critical to the meaning are omitted
what is telegraphic speech?
children using a word excessively after learning it
what is overextension?
when a child thinks all 4 legged animals are dogs
not being able to generalize, using one word for one thing
what is under extension?
when a child thinks of their family dog as the only dog ever
study of how the brain functions to produce language
what is neurolinguistics?
Some body functions and cognitive functions are
processed and controlled in only one of the hemispheres
inferior frontal lobe
what is Broca's area?
posterior temporal parietal area
what is Wernicke's area?
connects left and right hemispheres
any language disorder that results from brain damage caused by disease or trauma
many patients produce little speech, considered non fluent, severe word finding problems
patients have difficulty understanding speech, can't repeat back, speak rapidly making no sense
patients are unable to repeat back what they hear, good language comprehension, oral reading is poor
jokes, sarcasm, memory
right hemisphere is responsible for
test in which one hemisphere is anesthetized to test for capacity/speed of processing of other
a procedure in which the two brain hemispheres are isolated by cutting the corpus callosum
what is split brain
implements your plan, manipulating the larynx and related structures to say the word
function of motor cortex
impulsivity, short attention span, difficulty regulating emotions
what might a right brain stroke result in?
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