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Final Review

A cumulative set including topics covered in lectures and the text.
Most important to your survival
Interpersonal relationships
Psychology is...
The science of behavior and mental processes
The field that develops occupational tests and measurements is...
Psychology focuses on...
All levels and systems
Thoughts, feelings, memories and choices...
Can be studied with scientific rigor
Which is true of all levels and systems?
The body's internal chemical events and the behavior of the individual affect each other
According to the levels and systems view...
Events on the world level can affect an individual's internal neurochemistry , and and individual's internal neurochemistry can affect world history.
Change and development are typically...
Change and development are like
Language, food, clothing, religion, family...
Are different all around the world
The first living cells were..
The purpose of sexual reproduction is to
Increase variation
"Past could have been different, the future has many possibilities"
Alternatives and choices
Sometimes males do risky things to show off-things that might be deadly-an example of
Sexual Selection
Culture is
A group's way of solving a problem
The electrical activity of a neuron
Comes from chemical processes
An individual Neuron
either fires or remains at rest
Neurons communicate
The most important cortical difference is
Front vs. back
According to Hamilton______is the sum of classical fitness plus the effects the individual's actions have on the reproductive success of his or her genetic relatives, weighted by the degree of genetic relatedness.
Inclusive fitness
The common ancestor of all modern humans can be traced back to____
120-150 thousand years ago
Which of the following is the theory of human origins which has received much support from archeological evidence, though recent genetic evidence has refuted its exclusivity as a full explanation?
Out of Africa
Which of the following theories is the only known scientific theories that can explain adaptions?
Evolution by natural selection
Adaptions initially start as
Genetic mutations
As predicted from an evolutionary perspective, a study by Flinn and colleagues documented that children living with a stepparent have ____ levels of ____ than children living with biological parents
Higher; Cortisol
The antimicrobial hypothesis predicts that
Individuals will spice foods more in hotter climates
Pregnancy sickness is an adaption for
avoiding toxins that could harm the developing baby
Elevated testosterone early in life can _____ in later life
Have detrimental effects
Selection acts more strongly on men than on women because
men have a greater variability in reproduction
Women's olfactory acuity peaks
At or before ovulation
Multiple studies have now demonstrated than women who have high access to their own resources tend to place MORE emphasis on _____ than women with low access to resources do
A mate's financial prospects
Which of the following cues appears to be the key factor in our incest-avoidence mechanisms?
Cor-residence during childhood
Despite average changes in weight over the past thirty years, Singh found that ___ did not change (as reflected in the centerfolds of women's magazines)
Waist to hip ratio
Men who are in relationships and willing to have an affair tend to have ___ testosterone than men unwilling to have an affair, which supports the idea that testosterone is associated with _____ in men
higher; mating effort
Men in the later stages of relationships have __ testosterone than men in the early stages of a relationship. When divorced men remarry they experience a ____ in testosterone
Lower; drop
Women tend to derogate other women's _____ especially during the ____ phase of their cycle
Physical appearance; fertile
Men's ratings of women's attractiveness _____ following short term casual sex, and women's ratings of men's attractiveness _____ following short term casual sex
decrease; increase
Mated women are _____ to have an orgasm with their extra pair partner than/as they are with their long term partner
Infanticide rates are highest among
unmarried women
Women are elephants, men are
frogs and/or elephants
which factor is even more important than XX/XY
Men and women
begin life with the same basic body plan
The best contemporary treatments for sexual dysfunction
Education and communication training
Men have ___ phases of sexual responding and women have four
The answer is C
Whether one is heterosexual or homosexual is determined
by hormones before you are born
After you are born
Society tells you what it means to be a man or woman
Homosexual behavior
In some societies is an essential part of masculinity
Which masters Degree is the most versatile, accessible, and licensable everywhere?
Master of Social Work
Which program will pay for you to go to school?
PhD from a university
Which program typically prepares you for research, teaching, and clinical practice?
PhD clinical psychology
Treatment of mood disorder with talking therapy such as individual counseling
works well with disorders in the mild to moderate range
Causes of mood Disorder
Genetics, in utero exposure, family experience, peer experiences
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Is an important treatment for severe mood disorders
Are personality disorders treatable
Some forms are treatable with talking therapy
Left untreated, most mental disorders
will eventually improve
The difference between psychiatrists and shaman
Both have a spiritual belief system, but the psychiatrist also has science
Socialization, exercise, sleep, sunlight, dark, hugs,
Needs from our evolutionary heritage
Benefits of martial arts training for kids
Socialization and exercise
Mechanisms of benefit to kids in martial art training
Group process, individual behavior management
The entire cognitive system, according to an evolutionary psychological perspective, is
A complex collection of interrelated domain-specific information-processing devises
A computational theory
Specifies what a problem is and why there is a device to solve it
Linda wears tie-dyed shirts and buttons asserting that men are slime... this is an example of
Conjunction fallacy
Ecological Structure is
the set of statistical regularities of the human environment throughout our evolutionary history
The frequentist hypothesis states that
some human reasoning mechanisms are designed to take as input frequency information and produce as output frequency information
Tests of the frequentist hypothesis reveal that performance on the above problem (called the medical diagnosis problem) follows which pattern from worst to best
medical diagnosis problem, frequency information, visual information
Chompskey and Gould argue that language is
A by product of our large brain
Which of the following hypotheses proposes that language evolved via sexual selection?
Scheherazade hypothesis
Once language evolved,
Selection would not have limited language to its original function
The deadly inovations hypothesis proposes all of the following forces except
founder effects
one study found that each additional IQ point is associated with a
reduction in relative risk of death
Self handicapping is the
none of the above
Embarrassment evolved
to promote appeasement and submission
A key insight gleaned from evolutionary developmental psychology is
all of the above
Reactive heritability refers to
evolved psychological mechanisms designed to take as input one's heritable qualities as a guide to stratigic solutions
People who are high on the K-factor exhibit
Early attachment to their biological father
Evolved mechanisms can fail in all but the following ways?
Deactivation failure
Evoked culture refers to
Phenomena that are triggered in some groups more than others because of differing environmental conditions
The commitment skepticism bias, descent illusion, and auditory looming bias imply that humans
adaptively rational
Natural selection appears to be_______ early in life
especially strong