Civil War Test AP US History
Terms in this set (51)
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Free Soil Party
formed from the remnants of the Liberty Party in 1848; adopting a slogan of "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men," it opposed the spread of slavery into territories and supported homesteads, cheap postage, and internal improvements. It ran Martin Van Buren (1848) and John Hale (1852) for president and was absorbed into the Republican Party by 1856.
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed It temporarily defused sectional tensions in the United States, postponing the secession crisis and the American Civil War. Also repealed the compromise of 1820.
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Kansas was being disputed for free or slave soil during 1854-1857, by popular sovereignty. In 1857, there were enough free-soilers to overrule the slave-soilers. So many people were feuding that disagreements eventually led to killing in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces. (Missouri border ruffians)
Charles Sumner (anti-slavery) insults Andrew Butler from South Carolina in Congress declaring his infatuation with slavery; Preston Brooks, Butler's nephew, beats Sumner with a cane
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
John Brown's Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Election of 1860
The election in which Abraham Lincoln was first elected President due to the schism of the Democrats. Caused a chain reaction of southern states to secede from the Union since they were afraid of Lincoln's policies.
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
this was the strategy for the Union army brainchilded by General Winfield Scott which involved choking off the main resources of the Confederate army and had 3 main goals: gain control of the Mississippi River (this would cut the Confederacy into 2 parts), blockade the Southern ports, and to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond
Union Naval Blockade
The Union Blockade, or the Blockade of the South, took place between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, when the Union Navy maintained a strenuous effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms to and from the Confederacy. Ships that tried to evade the blockade, known as blockade runners, were mostly newly built, high-speed ships with small cargo capacity. Lincoln determined that there were two ways to block resources from the south. One was a naval blockade. The second way was to capture the most productive regions. He was trying to get his generals to understand these two concepts: exhaustion and annihilation. He had a hard time finding generals who were willing to adopt his strategies.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
an 1852 novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe written to show the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Act
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
fugitive slave and popular speaker against slavery; wrote newspaper called the "North Star"
- escaped from Kentucky across the Ohio river to freedom in Cincinnati.
-Slit the throat of her daughter with a butcher knife rather than see the child returned to slavery.
-Ohio authorities charged her with murder, but by that time she had been returned to Kentucky and then sent with her surviving three children to Arkansas to be sold.
-her youngest child and twenty-four other people drowned in a shipwreck
-Garner was later sold at a slave market in New Orleans
-Inspired Toni Morrison's story Beloved
an Illinois statesman who ran against Lincoln, Bell, and Breckenridge in the 1860 presidential election on a popular sovereignty platform for slavery, Douglas also authored the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and heightened the slavery debate
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Robert E. Lee
A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Was a Congressman from South Carolina, notorious for brutally assaulting senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate.
gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.
A Missouri slave who had been taken north to work in free territory for several years. After he returned with his slaveholder to MIssouri, Scott sued to end his slavery arguing that living in free territory made him a free man. Supreme court ruled against Scott. Stating that he was not a U.S. citizen and that gave him no right to sue in federal court. And said that the 5th amendment protected slaveholders from being deprived of their property.
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
American army general put in charge of Union troops and later removed by Lincoln for failure to press Lee's Confederate troops in Richmond
Governor of Kentucky around the Civil War. Supported states rights, including the right to secede from the union. Officially, Kentucky declared neutrality, but when legislative elections went to unionists, Magoffin resigned.
John Hunt Morgan
A confederate sympathizer who organized a group called the "Lexington Rifles". He led the group during the Civil War into Kentucky to conduct violent raids for the Confederates. The goal was to disrupt supply lines, like bridges, and morale.
General Stephen Burbridge
He was a Union general who controversially led black troops into war. He was given control over Kentucky, and was nicknamed the "Butcher of Kentucky"
He was Kentucky's State Representative in the House of Reps. He also served as Kentucky's 2nd Confederate Governor.
Confederate General who lead victorys in the First Battle of Bull Run and the Chattle of Chancellorsville. He was accidentally shot by his own troops.
William T. Sherman
He commanded the Union army in Tennessee. In September of 1864 his troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. He then headed to take Savannah. This was his famous "march to the sea.". His troops burned barns and houses, and destroyed the countryside. His march showed a shift in the belief that only military targets should be destroyed. Civilian centers could also be targets.
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Union fort attacked by Confederates in 1861 sparking the start of the Civil War
First Bull Run
First major battle of the Civil War, in which untrained Northern troops and civilian picnickers fled back to Washington. This battle helped boost Southern morale and made the North realize that this would be a long war.
Kentucky; October 8, 1862; N=Buell S=Lee; General Bragg, the Confederate commander in Tennessee suddenly invaded Kentucky. Neither side could claim victory, but the South could not afford casualties, confederates retreat
The first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
In Virginia where Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior army and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack the Union flank. This was successful strategy as it was one of the Confederates most successful victories of the war. However, during the battle Jackson was shot and killed by friendly fire which depleted the moral of the confederate force.
The union forces wanted to capture Vicksburg in order to control to Mississippi River. (Union) Gen. Grant surrounded Vicksburg and bombed it for a month. The people and Confederate soldiers starved until they surrendered.
a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
This railroad junction south of Richmond was the site of a 10 month standoff between Lee's and Grant's troops. The Union tried to defeat the Confederacy with explosives at the Battle of the Crater, but the plan backfired. The Union eventually broke through the Confederate line, sending Lee on the run and allowing the Union to capture the city and Richmond in April of 1865.
General Sherman lead a force from Chattanooga, Tennessee to South Carolina destroying everything the Confederates could use to survive. He set fire to South Carolina's capital, Columbia.
the site of surrender of the Confederate general Lee to Union general Grant in April 1865, marking the end of the Civil War, his surrender prevent several more years of guerilla war, Grant was lenient- the idea of reconciliation not vengeance, the south could keep its horses and the generals could keep their guns
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