Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (71)
Differentiate a hypothesis, theory and scientific law.
Hypothesis- Question backed up by facts
Theory- Does not necessarily need facts to back up
Scientific Law- All facts, proven????
Distinguish qualitative from quantitative observations. Give an example of each.
Qualitative data regards visual observations such as color and odor
Quantitative refers to number data, like charts or graphs
List three common safety rules and why they are important.
Goggles- eyes don't die
Always keep paper away from open flames- burning
Make sure bunsen burner is not under cabinet- burning
What are the SI units for length, mass, volume, time, and temp? What instruments are used to measure them?
length- meter- ruler
mass- kg- balance
volume- m3- graduated cyl
time- second- timer
temp- kelvin- thermometer
What is a derived unit? Give two examples.
two SI base units combined
What is a metric prefix? What does metric prefix centi-mean? The prefix milli-? The prefix kilo-?
It changes the magnitude of the base unit.
A student records volumes of 8.42 mL, 8.42 mL, and 8.40 mL. What is true about the precision of the instrument?
It instrument is precise because the measurements are all similar.
What is the difference between accurate and precise measurements?
Accuracy=close to true value
Precise=close to each other
How many sig figs are in each of the following measurements?
What rules regarding significant figures do you need to remember for adding/subtracting? Multiplying/dividing?
Adding/Subtracting is the least precise place
Multiply/Divide is the least number of sig figs
What is dimensional analysis used for?
To convert from one unit to another.
An object travels at a speed of 7500 cm/s. How far will it travel in a
Define matter. What is the law of conservation of matter?
Matter is anything that has mass and volume. The law of conservation of matter states that matter can not be created nor destroyed.
What is a diatomic element? Be able to identify diatomic elements.
A diatomic element is an element that exists in paired up in a molecule. These are H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, and At2.
What is the difference between an element and a compound? Atom and a molecule?
Elements and compounds are both pure substances (made of only one time of particle) but elements are made of one type of atom while compounds are made up of only one type of molecule. Atoms are the smallest particle of elements whereas molecules are the
smallest parts of compounds.
Compare metals to nonmetals in terms of properties, charges and location on periodic table.
Metals have luster (are shiny), are malleable, ductile, have high melting and boiling points and conduct electricity. Nonmetals are dull, brittle, have low melting and boiling points and are poor conductors.
How many metallic atoms are in Sn3(PO4)2?
Define ductility, malleability, and conductivity.
What is a solution? What are the two main parts of a solution?
A solution is a homogeneous mixture that appears uniform throughout. It is composed of a solute and solvent.
What did each of the following contribute to the model of the atom? Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr.
Democritus said atoms were "indivisible." Dalton revived the idea of the atom and ideas about how atoms rearrange themselves in chemical reactions. Thomson discovered the electron with Cathode Ray Tubes, Rutherford discovered the nucleus with his gold foil experiment and Bohr developed the planetary model, putting electrons in specific orbits.
How has Dalton's Theory changed over time?
Dalton originally said that atoms could not be broken down into smaller particles. We now know about subatomic particles. He also said all atoms of an element were identical. We now know about isotopes of atoms.
What was the gold foil experiment? Why did Rutherford conclude that the atom is mostly empty space and that the nucleus is small, positive, and dense?
In the gold foil experiment, Rutherford shot alpha particles (positively charged) at a sheet of gold foil expecting them to go right through. While most did (showing the atom was mostly empty space) some deflected slightly (showing the nucleus was positively charged as it repelled the alpha particles) and a very small number bounced straight back (indicating it was hitting a very small and dense nucleus).
What is an atom? List and describe the three main subatomic particles of an atom.
proton, neutron, electron
Where is most of the mass of an atom? Most of the volume?
mass in the nucleus, most volume in electron cloud
What does the atomic number tell you about an atom?
atomic number is number of protons
How do you determine mass number?
sum of protons and neutrons
What is an isotope?
same number of protons, different number of neutrons
How is an element's atomic mass related to the abundance of its different isotopes? Be able to calculate average atomic mass based on number and abundance of isotopes.
The average atomic mass is usually closest to the mass of the most abundant isotope of the element. Average atomic mass = (mass of isotope 1) x (% abundance) + (mass of isotope 2) x (% abundance)... etc.
What is an ion? Cation? Anion? Polyatomic ion?
An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a charge. Cations are positively charged and anions are negatively charged.
Tell the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following isotopes:
a- 11p 12n and 11e
b- 20p 20n 20e
How can you determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom?
Protons = atomic number, neutrons = mass number - atomic number, electrons = protons - charge
How is the atomic spectrum of an element like a "fingerprint?"
It's unique to every element.
Explain how the quantum model uses probability.
The quantum model shows the electron cloud as a set of overlapping "orbitals" that show where the electrons are most likely to be found.
Describe the relationship between wavelength and frequency.
As wavelength increases, frequency decreases (the relationship is inverse).
Describe what happens when an electron emits a photon and its proximity to the nucleus during this process.
When an electron gains energy, it moves further from the nucleus. When this energy is emitted (as a photon) the electron moves back toward the nucleus.
Give 2 ions that are isoelectric with argon.
What period and block is home to an atom with the electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1. What element is this?
Period 3, s block. Element is sodium.
How many unpaired electrons does phosphorus have?
What info is presented inside each square of the periodic table?
Atomic number, element symbol, and average atomic mass
Why are the atoms of elements in Group 1 likely to form ions with a 1+ charge? Why are group 17 elements likely to form ions with a 1- charge?
Group 1 elements can become like their nearest noble gas (stable) by losing 1 electron giving them a +1 charge. Group 17 elements can become like their nearest noble gas (stable) by gaining 1 electron giving them a -1 charge.
What is the octet rule?
The most stable configuration for an atom is to have 8 valence electrons (full s and p levels).
How did Mendeleev and Moseley arrange the elements in the periodic table?
by mass, Moseley arranged by atomic number
Why did Mendeleev leave blanks in his periodic table?
he predicted undiscovered elements
Differentiate groups and periods.
periods are horizontal, groups are vertical
Describe the general differences between the elements on the right and left sides of the periodic table.
The left side of the periodic table is home to metals that tend to lose electrons to become stable. The right side is home to nonmetals which tend to gain electrons to become stable.
How do you determine whether an element is a metal, nonmetal or metalloid?
location on periodic table
What is the relationship between size and ionization energy?
As atoms get bigger, it is easier to remove electrons from the outside (as they are further from the nucleus). Since ionization energy is the energy required to remove and electron, as atoms get bigger, IE gets smaller (inverse relationship).
What atom has the larger radius:
(a) Ra or N
(b) Ne or Xe
What particle has the larger radius:
(a) Cl or Cl-
(b) Mg or Mg2+
What atom has the higher first ionization energy?
(a) Li or Cs
(b) Ba or As
Determine whether each compound is ionic, molecular or acidic. Then name the compound.
Determine whether each compound is ionic, molecular or acidic. Then write its formula.
a. hydrobromic acid
b. zinc hydroxide
c. dinitrogen tetroxide
d. iron (III) oxide
Determine whether the following describe ionic or molecular compounds.
(b) solid at room temperature
(c) can have odor
(d) soluble in water
(e) contains only nonmetals
(f) metal bound to nonmetal
Explain the difference between a compound and a polyatomic ion. Give an example of each.
compounds are composed of more than one atom bound together. However, polyatomic ions are charged and compounds are not. SO3 is the compound sulfur trioxide; SO32- is the polyatomic ion sulfite.
Based on their electronegativities, are the bonds in the following substances IONIC, POLAR, or NONPOLAR?
List two elements that never follow the octet rule.
Identify as characteristics of ionic, covalent, or metallic bonding.
(a) These bonds are formed by delocalized electrons in an electron sea.
(b) These bonds involve a transfer of electrons.
(c) These bonds are formed by sharing electrons
(d) Substances containing these bonds are malleable and have very high melting points.
(e) Substances containing these bonds do not conduct electricity and have low melting points.
(f) Compounds containing these bonds have a crystal lattice structure.
metallic, ionic, covalent, ionic, covalent, ionic
What is the overall charge of ANY compound?
How do unshared pairs on the central atom affect the molecule shape and polarity.
The unshared pairs cause MORE repulsion than the electrons in shared pairs, creating smaller opposing bond angles.
Which end of an ammonia molecule (NH3) would be attracted to the positive pole of an electric field?
A positive pole of an electric field will attract a negative field. The end of the NH3 molecule with the unshared pair would have a negative charge. Thus the N end of the NH3 molecule would be attracted to the positive field.
Sets with similar terms
Physical Science A- Unit 2 Test Review
Physical science final
Chemistry Unit 2 CH. 4 & 5
Other sets by this creator
Events leading up to the War
Euro Final Year 2
English 10H Final